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Touch and vision are associated mainly with the ________ lobe


Complex cells in the visual system respond best to ________

Moving stimuli

________ is the first place in the cerebral cortex where visual information

Occipital lobe

This part of the brain is responsible for the brain's formation of memories


________ has made it possible to determine which areas of the brain are involved in diffferent cognitive processes

Brain imaging

Mental chronometry

Measuring the time course of cognitive processes

Donders RT experiments indicated how long it took to _______

Make a decision about the stimulus

Helmholtz's theory = ___________

Theory of unconscious inference

Which stimuli lead to ebbinghaus's memory experiment?

3 letter nonsense experiment

Wilhelm Wundt

Founder of the first lab of scientific psychology

Watson believed we should study ________

Observable behavior

Chomsky believed language development was driven by ________

Inborn programming

Conclusion of Breland's experiment using a raccoon

Behavior can't be explained soley on the basis of reinforcements because biologically programmed behavior is important too

"Birthday" of the cognitive psychology revolution?


Behavioral approach to the study of the mind involves measuring the relation between ___________

stimuli and behavior

Shepard and metzlers "mental roation" study found that it takes longer to compare 2 objects with....

a larger angle separating them

"Memory for Words" experiment showed that there was more activity in the ______ for words _____ than words _______

perirhinal cortex for words remembered than words forgotten

Cognitive Science

study of the mind as carried out by researchers in many disciplines

Neuron (parts)

cell body, dendrites, axon


transforming environmental energy or chemical energy into electrical energy found in the nervous system

Action potentials occur in the _____


If the intensity of a stimulus that is presented to a touch receptor is increased, this tends to increase the ________ in the axon

rate of nerve firing


the space between neurons

Neurons communicate with each other by ____

chemical patterns at the synapse

complex cells in the visual system respond best to _______

moving stimuli

1st place in the cerebral cortex where visual information is processed

occipital lobe

Touch and vision occur in the _____ lobe


Gauthier's "greeble" experiments illustrate _______

an effect of experience-dependent plasticity.

sequence = an image on the retina which leads to electrical signals and neural processing = _______

bottom up processing

Human postal workers being better than machines at reading unclear addresses is an example of ______

top-down processing

1st stage of Treisman's feature integration theory

Preattentive stage

recognition by components - number of basic features such as

rectangular solids and cubes

Structuralism explained perception as a _____

collection of small elementary units called sensations


"rule of thumb"

Heuristic vs. Algorithm

Heuristics are not correct every time (though they are correct most of the time) and algorithms are ALWAYS correct

Three evens contributing to the "cognitive revolution"

Introduction of computers, skinner's book, chomsky's response to Skinner's book

2 major types or classes of neurons

Sensory, Motor, Interneurons

Discuss "symmetrical" and "asymmetrical" organization of the brain

It is both symmetrical (in terms of structure) and asymmetrical (many of the functions)


Change blindness demonstrates how ________

attention can affect perception

Dichotic listening

experimental procedure used to study how attention affects the processing of competing stimuli

Broadbent's experiment supports the _____

early selection model because the filtering step occurs before the meaning of the incoming information is analyzed

Main difference between early and late selection of stimuli for final processing doesn't occur until the information is analyzed for ______


Late selection


Experiments that support the idea of early selection involve _____________

high-load tasks

in ANY condition where we find that a distractor influenced reaction time we can conclude that the distractor __________

was processed

two or more difficult tasks performed simultaneously is known as _______

divided attention

3 structural components of modal memory are...

Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory

Repeating an address or a phone number over and over until you get to the place you need to use it is a ______

control process in STM

Partial report procedure involves ___________

a smaller response set

Determining that the sentence is mainly concerned with the brain: ______ is responsible


effective deration of STM when rehearsal is prevented is _______

15-20 seconds

Digit span = _________

poor STM

Chess masters use ______ to help them remember game arrangements


"P" will most likely be misidentified as "___"


Working memory differs from STM in that working memory ________

is concerned with the manipulation of information

Imagining/forming a picture in your mind depends on _______

the visuospatial sketchpad

word-length effect shows it is more difficult to remember ______________

a list of long words than a list of short words

Articulatory suppression causes a decrease in the word-length effect because ______________

saying "the, the, the" fills up the phonological loop

Which task is easier? (using the block letter?)

Keeping block letter F in mind and saying "yes" and "no" for inside and outside corners

Central Executive

controls the suppression of irrelevant information

Funahashi's study showed the most prolonged firing during _______



predominant coding in LTM

Two types of declarative memory

episodic and semantic

Implicit memory

not conscious we are using it


acquiring information and transforming it into memory

Elaborative rehearsal is least likely accomplished by ___

repeating something over and over

Shallow processing is encouraged when attention is focused on _____

the number of vowels in a word

Transfer-Appropriate processing

memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval

Bransford and Johnson's study demonstrated the importance of....

an organizational context during learning

Hebb's proposed memory mechanism involved both ______ and ______

Changes at the synapse and long term potentiation (LTP)


transforms new memories from a fragile state in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption.

in the model of consolidation, the hippocampus is strongly active when memories are _____

first formed and being consolidated but become less active when retrieving older memories that are already consolidated.

Experimental evidence shows that the hippocampus is activated during the retrieval of ______

recent and remote episodic memories

Looking at photos of your wedding and bursting into tears displays activation of the ____


Locations, smells, and songs highlight the importance of _____ in LTM

retrieval cues

Encoding specificity

we learn information together with its context

Explain how the hybrid theory can resolve the debate between early and late selection theories


Repetition priming with Korsakoff's syndrome


Episodic Memory


Semantic memory


Procedural memory


Major difference between declarative and non-declarative


Four major causes of forgetting

1) Encoding failure
2) Retrieval Failure

Four changes in brain associated with learning/memory

1) LTP
2) Increased synapses
3) Neurogenesis
4) increase in blood flow, astrocytes, and dendrite length

remembering to pick up your little brother from soccer practice and get dinner for both of you on your way home from class tomorrow is an example of _____ memory


Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos ______

they took themselves

For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for ______

adolescence and early adulthood

Schrauf and Rubin's "two groups of immigrant study" found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occuring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to later for those who have emigrated later. These results support the ____

cognitive hypothesis

Flashbulb memory

Memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.

A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that...

extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate

constructive approach

what people report as memories are based on what actually happened plus additional factors

Repeated reproduction technique in memory studies involves...

the same participants remembering information for longer and longer intervals after learning the information

Which high school grades are remembered better?

good grades were remembered over bad grades

Source monitoring


In the "sleep list" false memory experiment, false memory occurs because of ______

constructive memory processes

False memories are ____________

a natural consequence of a largely adaptive memory system

The memory-trace replacement hypothesis states that the misinformation effect occurs because

MPI impairs or replaces memories formed during original experiencing of an event

"weapons focus" experiment

shows that the presence of a weapon hinders memory for other parts of the event.

eyewitness studies

when viewing a lineup, an eyewitness's confidence can increase by authority's confirmation


Average representation of a category

Olin is a bird expert. His standard for a bird probably involves ______

more examplars than Bob's (a non-bird expert)

Priming occurs when presentation of 1 stimulus ________

facilitates the response to another stimulus

Research suggests that the _____ approach to organization works best for small categories (such as U.S. presidents)


Rosch = _____ level of categorization is psychologically "privileged" level of categorization that reflects everyday experiences.


Jumping from _______ to ________ results in the largest GAIN in information

superordinate level to basic level

Spreading activation

primes associated concepts

Collins and loftus modified network theory by...

using shorter links for more closely related concepts

_______ most closely models the way the nervous system operates

parallel distributed processing theory

Shepard and Metzler's study showed ___

mental chronometry

Looking up at the ceiling when solving a problem is an example of ______

an epiphenomenon

perception involves _______ processing and imagery involves _________processing

bottom up and top down

How are flashbulb memories different than everyday memories?

Flashbulb memories are often highly emotional or linked to emotional events (9/11/01, challenger crash, etc.) and everyday memories are not as much emotional. Often are false even though vivid in the person's memory

language consists of smaller components, like words, that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, which can create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This property is known as ______

hierarchical structure

Communication is or is not one of the things that makes human language unique?

is NOT

B.F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through ______


One of Chomsky's most persuasive arguments for refuting Skinner's theory of language acquisition was his observation that children _________

produce sentences they have never heard

"Kitchen tables" consists of _______ morphemes


An experiment on the phonemic restoration effect would most likely include ________

an extraneous cough.

phonemic restoration effect


When we look at a record of the physical energy produced by conversaional speech, we see that the speech signal is _____


Potlack and Pickett's experiment of understanding speech found that when participatns were presented with individual words taken out of conversations (single words presented alone with no context) they could identify ____

50% of the words spoken by themselves

The word frequency effect refers to the fact that we respond more _______

slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words

In the lexical decision task, participants are asked to

decide whether a string of letter is a word or a non-word

Principle of late closure


Crucial question in comparing syntax - first and interactionist approaches to parsing is _______ is involved

when semantics

Most of coherence in texts is created by _____


George Foreman grilling fish not kids is an example of an ________

anaphoric inference

Most often we experience stories from point of view of the _________ (character)


Making probably conclusions based on evidence involves _____ reasoning


Presence of "all, some, or no" create _______

atmosphere effect


all of the students are tired
some tired people are irritable
Some of the students are irritable

Most people judge as _______

valid, because it is believable

For which type of syllogism do people exhibit the best performance in judging validity?

affirming the antecedent


If it is raining, then I will take my umbrella.
It is not raining
Therefore, I didn't take my umbrella

This syllogism is an example of

denying the antecedent

key to solving the Wason four-card problem is

the falsification principle

Swinney did an experiment in which he presented participants with the sentence "the man was not surprised to find several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room" He found that immediately after hearing the word "bug", the participants accessed _____ (which meanings?)

Both "insect" and "hidden listening device"


the rules for combining words into sentences

Physiological ERP responses show that a large P600 wave is associated with _____

incorrect syntax

Brain imaging (EEG/ERP) studies reveal that semantics and syntax are associated with ______ mechanisms


Application of a __________ makes it easier to solve the "drinking beer" version of Wason problem

permission schema

Social Exchange Theory is closely related with ___________

evolutionary perspective to solving Wason problem

Conjunction rule


omission bias


PFC damage results in ________

greater perseveration

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