sequence = an image on the retina which leads to electrical signals and neural processing = _______
bottom up processing
Human postal workers being better than machines at reading unclear addresses is an example of ______
1st stage of Treisman's feature integration theory
recognition by components - number of basic features such as
rectangular solids and cubes
Structuralism explained perception as a _____
collection of small elementary units called sensations
"rule of thumb"
Heuristic vs. Algorithm
Heuristics are not correct every time (though they are correct most of the time) and algorithms are ALWAYS correct
Three evens contributing to the "cognitive revolution"
Introduction of computers, skinner's book, chomsky's response to Skinner's book
2 major types or classes of neurons
Sensory, Motor, Interneurons
Discuss "symmetrical" and "asymmetrical" organization of the brain
It is both symmetrical (in terms of structure) and asymmetrical (many of the functions)
LOOK UP MORE ON TEST.
Change blindness demonstrates how ________
attention can affect perception
experimental procedure used to study how attention affects the processing of competing stimuli
Broadbent's experiment supports the _____
early selection model because the filtering step occurs before the meaning of the incoming information is analyzed
Main difference between early and late selection of stimuli for final processing doesn't occur until the information is analyzed for ______
Experiments that support the idea of early selection involve _____________
in ANY condition where we find that a distractor influenced reaction time we can conclude that the distractor __________
two or more difficult tasks performed simultaneously is known as _______
3 structural components of modal memory are...
Sensory memory, short term memory, long term memory
Repeating an address or a phone number over and over until you get to the place you need to use it is a ______
control process in STM
Partial report procedure involves ___________
a smaller response set
Determining that the sentence is mainly concerned with the brain: ______ is responsible
effective deration of STM when rehearsal is prevented is _______
Digit span = _________
Chess masters use ______ to help them remember game arrangements
"P" will most likely be misidentified as "___"
Working memory differs from STM in that working memory ________
is concerned with the manipulation of information
Imagining/forming a picture in your mind depends on _______
the visuospatial sketchpad
word-length effect shows it is more difficult to remember ______________
a list of long words than a list of short words
Articulatory suppression causes a decrease in the word-length effect because ______________
saying "the, the, the" fills up the phonological loop
Which task is easier? (using the block letter?)
Keeping block letter F in mind and saying "yes" and "no" for inside and outside corners
controls the suppression of irrelevant information
Funahashi's study showed the most prolonged firing during _______
predominant coding in LTM
Two types of declarative memory
episodic and semantic
not conscious we are using it
acquiring information and transforming it into memory
Elaborative rehearsal is least likely accomplished by ___
repeating something over and over
Shallow processing is encouraged when attention is focused on _____
the number of vowels in a word
memory performance is enhanced if the type of task at encoding matches the type of task at retrieval
Bransford and Johnson's study demonstrated the importance of....
an organizational context during learning
Hebb's proposed memory mechanism involved both ______ and ______
Changes at the synapse and long term potentiation (LTP)
transforms new memories from a fragile state in which they can be disrupted, to a more permanent state, in which they are resistant to disruption.
in the model of consolidation, the hippocampus is strongly active when memories are _____
first formed and being consolidated but become less active when retrieving older memories that are already consolidated.
Experimental evidence shows that the hippocampus is activated during the retrieval of ______
recent and remote episodic memories
Looking at photos of your wedding and bursting into tears displays activation of the ____
Locations, smells, and songs highlight the importance of _____ in LTM
we learn information together with its context
Explain how the hybrid theory can resolve the debate between early and late selection theories
Repetition priming with Korsakoff's syndrome
Major difference between declarative and non-declarative
Four major causes of forgetting
1) Encoding failure 2) Retrieval Failure
Four changes in brain associated with learning/memory
1) LTP 2) Increased synapses 3) Neurogenesis 4) increase in blood flow, astrocytes, and dendrite length
remembering to pick up your little brother from soccer practice and get dinner for both of you on your way home from class tomorrow is an example of _____ memory
Autobiographical memory research shows that a person's brain is more extensively activated when viewing photos ______
they took themselves
For most adults over age 40, the reminiscence bump describes enhanced memory for ______
adolescence and early adulthood
Schrauf and Rubin's "two groups of immigrant study" found that the reminiscence bump coincided with periods of rapid change, occuring at a normal age for people emigrating early in life but shifting to later for those who have emigrated later. These results support the ____
Memory for the circumstances surrounding how a person heard about an emotional event that remains especially vivid but not necessarily accurate over time.
A lesson to be learned from the research on flashbulb memories is that...
extreme vividness of a memory does not mean it is accurate
what people report as memories are based on what actually happened plus additional factors
Repeated reproduction technique in memory studies involves...
the same participants remembering information for longer and longer intervals after learning the information
Which high school grades are remembered better?
good grades were remembered over bad grades
In the "sleep list" false memory experiment, false memory occurs because of ______
constructive memory processes
False memories are ____________
a natural consequence of a largely adaptive memory system
The memory-trace replacement hypothesis states that the misinformation effect occurs because
MPI impairs or replaces memories formed during original experiencing of an event
"weapons focus" experiment
shows that the presence of a weapon hinders memory for other parts of the event.
when viewing a lineup, an eyewitness's confidence can increase by authority's confirmation
Average representation of a category
Olin is a bird expert. His standard for a bird probably involves ______
more examplars than Bob's (a non-bird expert)
Priming occurs when presentation of 1 stimulus ________
facilitates the response to another stimulus
Research suggests that the _____ approach to organization works best for small categories (such as U.S. presidents)
Rosch = _____ level of categorization is psychologically "privileged" level of categorization that reflects everyday experiences.
Jumping from _______ to ________ results in the largest GAIN in information
superordinate level to basic level
primes associated concepts
Collins and loftus modified network theory by...
using shorter links for more closely related concepts
_______ most closely models the way the nervous system operates
parallel distributed processing theory
Shepard and Metzler's study showed ___
Looking up at the ceiling when solving a problem is an example of ______
perception involves _______ processing and imagery involves _________processing
bottom up and top down
How are flashbulb memories different than everyday memories?
Flashbulb memories are often highly emotional or linked to emotional events (9/11/01, challenger crash, etc.) and everyday memories are not as much emotional. Often are false even though vivid in the person's memory
language consists of smaller components, like words, that can be combined to form larger ones, like phrases, which can create sentences, which themselves can be components of a larger story. This property is known as ______
Communication is or is not one of the things that makes human language unique?
B.F. Skinner, the modern champion of behaviorism, proposed that language is learned through ______
One of Chomsky's most persuasive arguments for refuting Skinner's theory of language acquisition was his observation that children _________
produce sentences they have never heard
"Kitchen tables" consists of _______ morphemes
An experiment on the phonemic restoration effect would most likely include ________
an extraneous cough.
phonemic restoration effect
When we look at a record of the physical energy produced by conversaional speech, we see that the speech signal is _____
Potlack and Pickett's experiment of understanding speech found that when participatns were presented with individual words taken out of conversations (single words presented alone with no context) they could identify ____
50% of the words spoken by themselves
The word frequency effect refers to the fact that we respond more _______
slowly to low-frequency words than high-frequency words
In the lexical decision task, participants are asked to
decide whether a string of letter is a word or a non-word
Principle of late closure
Crucial question in comparing syntax - first and interactionist approaches to parsing is _______ is involved
Most of coherence in texts is created by _____
George Foreman grilling fish not kids is an example of an ________
Most often we experience stories from point of view of the _________ (character)
Making probably conclusions based on evidence involves _____ reasoning
Presence of "all, some, or no" create _______
all of the students are tired some tired people are irritable Some of the students are irritable
Most people judge as _______
valid, because it is believable
For which type of syllogism do people exhibit the best performance in judging validity?
affirming the antecedent
If it is raining, then I will take my umbrella. It is not raining Therefore, I didn't take my umbrella
This syllogism is an example of
denying the antecedent
key to solving the Wason four-card problem is
the falsification principle
Swinney did an experiment in which he presented participants with the sentence "the man was not surprised to find several spiders, roaches, and other bugs in the corner of the room" He found that immediately after hearing the word "bug", the participants accessed _____ (which meanings?)
Both "insect" and "hidden listening device"
the rules for combining words into sentences
Physiological ERP responses show that a large P600 wave is associated with _____
Brain imaging (EEG/ERP) studies reveal that semantics and syntax are associated with ______ mechanisms
Application of a __________ makes it easier to solve the "drinking beer" version of Wason problem
Social Exchange Theory is closely related with ___________