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conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.

Sensory Adaptation

Decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation.

Sensory Habituation

Our perception of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them.


Protective covering of eye


muscle that controls the pupil


the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina


conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.


Cells in eye that are activated by color


Cells in eye that respond to white and black.


the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster

Ganglion cells

their axons form the optic nerve


visual part of thalamus and Primary visual cortex= have cells that know what is coming into right and left eye.

optic chiasm

the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain

Trichromatic theory

idea that color vision is based on our sensitivity to three different colors: blue, green, and red. But can not explain afterimages or colorblindness.

opponent-process theory

the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.


Height of the wave and determines the loudness of the sound, which is measured in decibels.


The lenght of the wave and determines the pitch, measured in megahertz.


three tiny bones in the middle ear

Place Theory

Theory that holds that the hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea.

Frequency theory

in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch

Conduction Deafness

hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the middle ear

Nerve deafness

hearing loss due to failure of the auditory nerve. LOUD NOISE.

Gate-control theory

Some pain messages have a higher priority than others. When a higher priority is sent the gates open for high intensity.


Where are taste buds located?

Vestibular Sense

a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head

Kinesthetic Sense

the sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other

Absolute Threshold

Smallest amount of stimulus we can detect.

Difference threshold

the smallest change in stimulation that a person can detect

Weber's law

the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)

Signal Detection Theory

A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise

Top-Down Processing

We use our experiences in order to perceive a certain object.

Bottom-up Processing

We only use features of the object it self to build a perception.

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