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32 terms

Sensation and Perception

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Transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
Sensory Adaptation
Decreasing responsiveness to stimuli due to constant stimulation.
Sensory Habituation
Our perception of sensations is partially due to how focused we are on them.
Cornea
Protective covering of eye
Iris
muscle that controls the pupil
Accomodation
the process by which the eye's lens changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
Transduction
conversion of one form of energy into another. In sensation, the transforming of stimulus energies, such as sights, sounds, and smells, into neural impulses our brains can interpret.
Cones
Cells in eye that are activated by color
Rods
Cells in eye that respond to white and black.
Fovea
the central focal point in the retina, around which the eye's cones cluster
Ganglion cells
their axons form the optic nerve
LGN
visual part of thalamus and Primary visual cortex= have cells that know what is coming into right and left eye.
optic chiasm
the crossing of the optic nerves from the two eyes at the base of the brain
Trichromatic theory
idea that color vision is based on our sensitivity to three different colors: blue, green, and red. But can not explain afterimages or colorblindness.
opponent-process theory
the theory that opposing retinal processes (red-green, yellow-blue, white-black) enable color vision. For example, some cells are stimulated by green and inhibited by red; others are stimulated by red and inhibited by green.
Amplitude
Height of the wave and determines the loudness of the sound, which is measured in decibels.
Frequency
The lenght of the wave and determines the pitch, measured in megahertz.
ossicles
three tiny bones in the middle ear
Place Theory
Theory that holds that the hair cells in the cochlea respond to different frequencies of sound based on where they are located in the cochlea.
Frequency theory
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch
Conduction Deafness
hearing loss due to problems with the bones of the middle ear
Nerve deafness
hearing loss due to failure of the auditory nerve. LOUD NOISE.
Gate-control theory
Some pain messages have a higher priority than others. When a higher priority is sent the gates open for high intensity.
Papillae
Where are taste buds located?
Vestibular Sense
a sensory system located in structures of the inner ear that registers the orientation of the head
Kinesthetic Sense
the sense of body position and movement of body parts relative to each other
Absolute Threshold
Smallest amount of stimulus we can detect.
Difference threshold
the smallest change in stimulation that a person can detect
Weber's law
the principle that, to be perceived as different, two stimuli must differ by a constant minimum percentage (rather than a constant amount)
Signal Detection Theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise
Top-Down Processing
We use our experiences in order to perceive a certain object.
Bottom-up Processing
We only use features of the object it self to build a perception.