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all of the following are true of the nervous system, except

function independently of the endocrine system

endocrine cells

release their secretions directly into body fluids

____ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues


cells can respond to ____ hormones at the same time

a few

hormones known as "catecholamines" are

derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine

peptide hormones are

composed of amino acids

a kinase is an enzyme that performs


an activated G protein can trigger

-the production of diacylglycerol
-the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane
-the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores
-a fall in cAMP levels

calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein


hormones can operate on the ____ level of organization


the functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ____ system in many ways


the hypothalamus acts as both a neural and an ____ organ


a simple endocrine reflex involves ____ hormone


which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger

cyclic AMP

all of the following are true of steroid hormones, except

are produced by the suprarenal medulla

each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except

thyroid-stimulating hormone

extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones

catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids

steroid hormones

bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells

when a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the

second messenger appears in the cytoplasm

hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. these categories include

-amino acid derivatives

hormonal actions on cells include those that affect

-quantities of enzymes
-activities of enzymes
-synthesis of enzymes
-gating of ion channels

the link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is

a G protein

when adenyl cyclase is activated

ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed

after a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex

gene transcription is initiated

the most complex endocrine responses involve the


hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors

-blood level of an ion-like potassium
-blood level of glucose
-blood level of a hormone
-nervous stimuli

which of the following hormones are water soluble and therefore binds to extracellular receptors

insulin and epinephrine

all target cells

have hormone receptors

if the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose


increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of


destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result

loss of ADH secretion

the primary function of ADH is to

decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys

if the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones


changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of


the hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by

secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system

neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture

ADH and oxytocin

secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release


the hypophyseal portal system

-is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
-has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins
-carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary
-carries ADH and oxytocin

the main action antidiuretic hormone is

increased water conservation by kidneys

excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause


which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates

growth hormones

which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin

-ductus deferens
-mammary glands

the posterior pituitary gland secretes


the hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is


each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophyis, except


the hormone oxytocin

-promotes uterine contractions
-is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands
-triggers prostate gland contractions
-is the produced in the hypothalamus

growth hormone does all of the following, except

causes fat accumulation with adipocytes

liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called


the pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is


the pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is


the pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is


the pituitary hormones that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is


the pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is


the pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is


the pituitary hormone that cuases the kidney to reduce water loss is


after brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. the ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. which one?


the term used to describe excess production of urine is


melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia

-during pregnancy
-in very young children
-during fetal development
-in some disease processes

the two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones


PRL is to ____ as ACTH is to ____

prolactin; corticotropin

the hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is


which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone


which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration


which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues

-increased oxygen consumption
-increased heart rate
-increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation
-increased body temperature

thyroid hormone contains the element


mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of


the hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is


a hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is


the condition known as hirsutism can result from too

much androgen production

the C cells of the thyroid gland produce


increased levels of the hormone ____ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood


where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place

in the lumen of the thyroid follicle

TSH plays a key role in the ____ of thyroid hormones

synthesis and release

the control of calcitonin excretion is a example of direct ____ regulation


inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to

high blood levels of THS

thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the

thyroid gland

the action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all these steps except one. identify the incorrect step

binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane

which of the following is not an action of TSH

inhibits T3 and T4 secretion

before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. what glands are these and which hormone is lacking

parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone

parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn't

build up bone

the hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is

parathyroid hormone

the parathyroid glands produce a hormone that

increases the level of calcium ions in the blood

the zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces


the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces


the zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces


the suprarenal medulla produces


a hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is


a hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is


Cushing disease results from an excess of


reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of


the suprarenal medulla produces the hormones

epinephrine and norepinephrine

damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in

decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose

a rise in cortisol would cause an increaase in each of the following, except

ACTH levels

if a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to supress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry

both an increase of insulin and an increase in blood glucose

too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes

Addison disease

a hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is


cells of the suprarenal cortex produce


which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system


which gland is called the "emergency gland" and helps the body to adjust to stress

adrenal (suprarenal)

which group of hormones cause and an anti-inflammatory action


hormones from the adrenal cortex that electrolyte balance are


which of these statements about melatonin is false

exposure to light stimulates production

pinealocytes produce


melatonin is produced by the

pineal gland

each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it

is a component of the hypothalamus

the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by

increased levels of melatonin

alpha cells are to ____ as beta cells are to ____

glucagon; insulin

if a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting


the primary targets of insulin are

-skeletal muscle fibers
-liver cells
-cardiac muscle cells

the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is


in persons with untreated diabetes mellitus

-blood glucose levels are very high
-excessive thirst is shown
-glucose is present in the urine in large amounts
-a large excretion of urine occurs

which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin

low blood glucose

Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. the tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. this tumor probably involves cells of the

zona reticularis

when blood glucose levels rise

insulin is released

when blood glucose levels fall

glucagon is released

the beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce


he delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce


the exocrine portion of the pancreas produces

digestive enzymes

type II diabetes is characterized by

a lack of response by target cells to insulin

which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood


which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin

blood-glucose concentration

the currently recognized normal range of blood-glucose is

70-110 mg/dl

the pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)

contain four types of endocrine cells

the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is


inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in

diabetes mellitus

a rise in angiotensin II levels would result in all of the following, except

increased urine production

angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the


the enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of


the interstitial cells of the testes produce


follicle cells in the ovary secrete ____ when stimulated by FSH


a structure known as the corpus luteum secretes


the hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is


the hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are


which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells


the kidneys secrete

-hormones to regulate sodium ion concentration

cholecalciferol is synthesized within the

epidermis of the integumentary system

the heart is known to secrete all of the following hormones, except

thymosin and thyroxine

increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones

sex hormones

the hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is


proper growth requires which of these hormones

-thyroid hormone
-growth hormone

during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is

mobilization of energy reserves

if stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)


hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the


during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)

lipid reserves are mobilized

the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by

failure of electrolyte balance

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