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145 terms

A&P II ch 18 endocrine

final
STUDY
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all of the following are true of the nervous system, except
function independently of the endocrine system
endocrine cells
release their secretions directly into body fluids
____ are chemical messengers that are released in one tissue and transported in the bloodstream to alter the activities of specific cells in other tissues
hormones
cells can respond to ____ hormones at the same time
a few
hormones known as "catecholamines" are
derivatives of the amino acid tyrosine
peptide hormones are
composed of amino acids
a kinase is an enzyme that performs
phosphorylation
an activated G protein can trigger
-the production of diacylglycerol
-the opening of calcium ion channels in the membrane
-the release of calcium ions from intracellular stores
-a fall in cAMP levels
calcium ions serve as messengers, often in combination with the intracellular protein
calmodulin
hormones can operate on the ____ level of organization
-cellular
-tissue
-organ
-organismic
the functional organization of the nervous system parallels that of the ____ system in many ways
endocrine
the hypothalamus acts as both a neural and an ____ organ
endocrine
a simple endocrine reflex involves ____ hormone
one
which of the following substances activates protein kinases and thus acts as a second messenger
cyclic AMP
all of the following are true of steroid hormones, except
are produced by the suprarenal medulla
each of the following hormones is an amino acid derivative, except
thyroid-stimulating hormone
extracellular membrane receptors are used by which of the following types of hormones
catecholamines, peptide hormones, and eicosanoids
steroid hormones
bind to receptors in the nucleus of their target cells
when a catecholamine or peptide hormone binds to receptors on the surface of a cell, the
second messenger appears in the cytoplasm
hormones can be divided into different groups based on their chemistry. these categories include
-peptides
-steroids
-eicosanoids
-amino acid derivatives
hormonal actions on cells include those that affect
-quantities of enzymes
-activities of enzymes
-synthesis of enzymes
-gating of ion channels
the link between a first messenger and a second messenger in a cell that responds to peptide hormones is
a G protein
when adenyl cyclase is activated
ATP is consumed and cAMP is formed
after a steroid hormone binds to its receptor to form an active complex
gene transcription is initiated
the most complex endocrine responses involve the
hypothalamus
hormone release may be controlled by which of the following factors
-blood level of an ion-like potassium
-blood level of glucose
-blood level of a hormone
-nervous stimuli
which of the following hormones are water soluble and therefore binds to extracellular receptors
insulin and epinephrine
all target cells
have hormone receptors
if the adenyl cyclase activity of liver cells were missing, which of these hormones could no longer stimulate release of glucose
glucagon
increased activity of phosphodiesterase in a target cell would decrease its level of
cAMP
destruction of the supraoptic nucleus of the hypothalamus would have which result
loss of ADH secretion
the primary function of ADH is to
decrease the amount of water lost at the kidneys
if the median eminence of the hypothalamus is destroyed, the hypothalamus would no longer be able to control the secretion of which of the following hormones
TSH, ACTH, PRL
changes in blood osmotic pressure would most affect the secretion of
ADH
the hypothalamus controls secretion by the adenohypophysis by
secreting releasing and inhibiting factors into a tiny portal system
neurons of the supraoptic and paraventricular nuclei of the hypothalamus manufacture
ADH and oxytocin
secretory cells of the adenohypophysis release
-FSH
-TSH
-ACTH
-GH
the hypophyseal portal system
-is a blood connection between the hypothalamus to the anterior pituitary
-has two capillary plexuses connected by short veins
-carries neurosecretions to the anterior lobe of the pituitary
-carries ADH and oxytocin
the main action antidiuretic hormone is
increased water conservation by kidneys
excess secretion of growth hormone during early development will cause
gigantism
which of the following hormones may lead to acromegaly if hypersecreted after closure of the epiphyseal plates
growth hormones
which of the following organs contain target cells for oxytocin
-prostate
-ductus deferens
-mammary glands
-uterus
the posterior pituitary gland secretes
ADH
the hormone produced by the pars intermedia of the adenohypophysis during early childhood is
MSH
each of the following hormones is produced by the pars distalis of the adenohypophyis, except
oxytocin
the hormone oxytocin
-promotes uterine contractions
-is responsible for milk expression from the mammary glands
-triggers prostate gland contractions
-is the produced in the hypothalamus
growth hormone does all of the following, except
causes fat accumulation with adipocytes
liver cells respond to growth hormone by releasing hormones called
somatomedins
the pituitary hormone that triggers the release of thyroid hormone from the thyroid gland is
TSH
the pituitary hormone that controls the release of glucocorticoids from the suprarenal cortex is
ACTH
the pituitary hormone that promotes egg development in ovaries and sperm development in testes is
FSH
the pituitary hormones that promotes ovarian secretion of progesterone and testicular secretion of testosterone is
LH
the pituitary hormone that stimulates milk production by the mammary glands is
prolactin
the pituitary hormone that stimulates cell growth and replication by accelerating protein synthesis is
somatotropin
the pituitary hormone that cuases the kidney to reduce water loss is
ADH
after brain surgery, a patient receiving postoperative care in an intensive care unit began to pass large volumes of very dilute urine. the ICU nurse administered a medicine that mimics one of the following hormones. which one?
ADH
the term used to describe excess production of urine is
polyuria
melanocyte-stimulating hormone (MSH) is secreted by the human pars intermedia
-during pregnancy
-in very young children
-during fetal development
-in some disease processes
the two lobes of the pituitary gland together produce how many hormones
9
PRL is to ____ as ACTH is to ____
prolactin; corticotropin
the hormone that may be slowly administered by intravenous drip to accelerate labor and delivery is
oxytocin
which of the following elements is necessary for the production of thyroid hormone
iodine
which of the following cells are target cells for the hormone that causes a decrease in blood-calcium concentration
osteoclasts
which of the following is a known effect of thyroid hormone on peripheral tissues
-increased oxygen consumption
-increased heart rate
-increased sensitivity to adrenergic stimulation
-increased body temperature
thyroid hormone contains the element
iodine
mental and physical sluggishness and low body temperature may be signs of
hypothyroidism
the hormone that plays a pivotal role in setting the metabolic rate and thus impacting body temperature is
thyroxine
a hormone that can lower blood levels of calcium ion is
calcitonin
the condition known as hirsutism can result from too
much androgen production
the C cells of the thyroid gland produce
calcitonin
increased levels of the hormone ____ will lead to increased levels of calcium ion in the blood
PTH
where does the chemical reaction between thyroglobulin and iodine take place
in the lumen of the thyroid follicle
TSH plays a key role in the ____ of thyroid hormones
synthesis and release
the control of calcitonin excretion is a example of direct ____ regulation
endocrine
inadequate iodine in the diet may lead to
-hypothyroidism
-cretinism
-myxedema
high blood levels of THS
thyroxine and calcitonin are secreted by the
thyroid gland
the action of thyroid hormone on a target cell involves all these steps except one. identify the incorrect step
binding to a hormone receptor in the plasma membrane
which of the following is not an action of TSH
inhibits T3 and T4 secretion
before the discovery of these glands, thyroid surgery often led to a rapid drop in blood calcium levels, which triggered muscle contractions and cardiac arrhythmias. what glands are these and which hormone is lacking
parathyroid glands; parathyroid hormone
parathyroid hormone does all of the following, except that it doesn't
build up bone
the hormone that does the opposite of calcitonin is
parathyroid hormone
the parathyroid glands produce a hormone that
increases the level of calcium ions in the blood
the zona reticularis of the suprarenal cortex produces
androgens
the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex produces
glucocorticoids
the zona glomerulosa of the suprarenal cortex produces
mineralcorticoids
the suprarenal medulla produces
catecholamines
a hormone that promotes gluconeogenesis in the liver is
cortisol
a hormone that helps to regulate the sodium ion content of the body is
aldosterone
Cushing disease results from an excess of
glucocorticoids
reduction of fluid losses at the kidneys due to the retention of Na+ is the action of
aldosterone
the suprarenal medulla produces the hormones
epinephrine and norepinephrine
damage to cells of the zona fasciculata of the suprarenal cortex would result in
decreased ability to convert amino acids to glucose
a rise in cortisol would cause an increaase in each of the following, except
ACTH levels
if a patient is administered a powerful glucocorticoid (such as prednisone) to supress the immune system, what unintended effects might this have on blood chemistry
both an increase of insulin and an increase in blood glucose
too little secretion of cortisol and aldosterone causes
Addison disease
a hormone that is synergistic to growth hormone is
cortisol
cells of the suprarenal cortex produce
aldosterone
which of the following hormones increases and prolongs effects of the sympathetic nervous system
epinephrine
which gland is called the "emergency gland" and helps the body to adjust to stress
adrenal (suprarenal)
which group of hormones cause and an anti-inflammatory action
glucocorticoids
hormones from the adrenal cortex that electrolyte balance are
mineralcorticoids
which of these statements about melatonin is false
exposure to light stimulates production
pinealocytes produce
melatonin
melatonin is produced by the
pineal gland
each of the following is true of the pineal gland, except that it
is a component of the hypothalamus
the condition known as seasonal affective disorder (SAD) may be caused by
increased levels of melatonin
alpha cells are to ____ as beta cells are to ____
glucagon; insulin
if a diabetic patient received too much insulin, the low blood sugar could be corrected by injecting
glucagon
the primary targets of insulin are
-skeletal muscle fibers
-adipocytes
-liver cells
-cardiac muscle cells
the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar levels to fall is
insulin
in persons with untreated diabetes mellitus
-blood glucose levels are very high
-excessive thirst is shown
-glucose is present in the urine in large amounts
-a large excretion of urine occurs
which of the following might occur in an overdose of insulin
low blood glucose
Shelly has a hormone-secreting tumor of the suprarenal gland. the tumor is causing her to have a deep voice, to grow extensive body hair, and to stop menstruating. this tumor probably involves cells of the
zona reticularis
when blood glucose levels rise
insulin is released
when blood glucose levels fall
glucagon is released
the beta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
insulin
he delta cells of the pancreatic islets produce
somatostatin
the exocrine portion of the pancreas produces
digestive enzymes
type II diabetes is characterized by
a lack of response by target cells to insulin
which of the following hormones stimulates skeletal muscle fibers to take in glucose from the blood
insulin
which of the following directly regulates the secretion of insulin
blood-glucose concentration
the currently recognized normal range of blood-glucose is
70-110 mg/dl
the pancreatic islets (islets of langerhans)
contain four types of endocrine cells
the pancreatic hormone that causes blood sugar to enter its target cells is
insulin
inability of the pancreas to produce insulin results in
diabetes mellitus
a rise in angiotensin II levels would result in all of the following, except
increased urine production
angiotensin I is converted to angiotensin II by converting enzymes in the
lungs
the enzyme renin is responsible for the activation of
angiotensin
the interstitial cells of the testes produce
testosterone
follicle cells in the ovary secrete ____ when stimulated by FSH
estrogen
a structure known as the corpus luteum secretes
progesterone
the hormone that opposes the release of FSH in both males and females is
inhibin
the hormones that are important for coordinating the immune response are
thymosins
which of these hormones increases production of red blood cells
erythropoietin
the kidneys secrete
-renin
-erythropoietin
-calcitrol
-hormones to regulate sodium ion concentration
cholecalciferol is synthesized within the
epidermis of the integumentary system
the heart is known to secrete all of the following hormones, except
thymosin and thyroxine
increased aggressive and assertive behavior is associated with an increase in which of these hormones
sex hormones
the hormone that dominates during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is
epinephrine
proper growth requires which of these hormones
-thyroid hormone
-calcitrol
-insulin
-growth hormone
during the alarm phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) there is
mobilization of energy reserves
if stress lasts longer than a few hours, an individual will enter the ____ phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
resistance
hormones that dominate during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) are the
glucocorticoids
during the resistance phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS)
lipid reserves are mobilized
the exhaustion phase of the general adaptation syndrome (GAS) is characterized by
failure of electrolyte balance