APK - Chapter #2 Viticulture and Grapes

What is the science and practice of grape growing called?
The best quality grapes are grown in areas where there is a relativity short and hot ripening period.
Vines thrive between 50 degrees and 90 degrees.
Some viticulturalists regard a micro-climate as the climate surrounding one vine.
What is the name of the system developed in California that delineates certain growing regions based on the average temperature during the growing season?
The Heat Summation System or Winkler's Heat Summation System
How many regions does the Heat Summation System delineates?
Which Heat Summation System region is the coolest?
Region 1 is the coolest. Examples: Carneros, Carmel Valley, Santa Ynez Valley, Santa Maria Valley, Edna Valley, San Luis Obispo (Paso Robles and York Mountain), San Francisco Bay Area, Russian River Valley from Petaluma Bay to Chalk Hill. Yakima, WA (parts), Willamette Valley, WA, Umpaque and Rogue River Valleys, WA, Adelaide Hills, South Australia, South Australia, Marlborough Bay, New Zealand, Chile, all 13 Anbaugebeite of Germany, all 24 cantons of Switzerland, all districts of Austria, Champagne, Alsace, Chablis, Burgundy, and Loire Valley (Most)
Is Region 5 suitable for growing fine wines?
When is frost most problematic?
In the spring time.
What methods do vineyard managers employ to eliminate frost?
Wine Machines, Heaters, Oil Burners, and Aspersion
What causes coulure?
Bad weather, particularly cold weather at flowering time.
Is rain at harvest time beneficial?
No, it's undesirable
Explain the concept of Terroir.
Terroir is an enological term that describes an area where soil, climate and a particular grape variety are exceptionally well suited.
Whats the scientific name for "The Wine Vine".
Vitis Vinifera
What is Phylloxera?
Phylloxera is an insect. More specifically an aphid that feeds on the roots of grapevines, causing holes where sap can seep out.
When did Phylloxera ravage Europe?
The late 1800's; Around 1860
How does Phylloxera detroy a vine?
They feed on the roots of grapevines, causing holes where sap can seep out.
Are there any wine regions in the world that have no been affected by Phylloxera?
Yes, Chile, parts of Australia and New Zealand
True or False
The grapes in the Southern Hemisphere are harvested at the same time as the grapes in the Northern Hemisphere.
The Southern Hemisphere cycle has a 6 month difference - The grapes would be harvested in late spring.
In what season does pruning take place in the Norther Hemisphere?
Pruning takes place in the winter (Northern Hemisphere)
Name three classic varieties of red wine.
Cabernet Sauvignon, Merlot, Pinot Noir, Syrah
Name three classic varieties of white wine.
Chardonnay, Sauvignon Blanc, Chenin Blanc, Riesling, Semillon
True & False
Vitis Labrusca is the most common species of vine.
Name the crossing of Pinot Noir & Cinsault.
Where is the crossing of Pinot Noir & Cinsault grown?
South Africa
Give an example of a clone.
Brunello di Montalcino is a clone of Sangiovese. Gamay Beaujolais is a clone of Pinot Noir.
What are the types of pruning?
Cane Pruning (Single Guyot) & Gobelet Bush System (Spur Pruning, Head Training)
When do the vine's buds begin to break.
Flowering can start in May but usually takes place in June and is complete by July.
Explain Veraison
Veraison is the ripening period for the grapes when the berries change from the small, hard green stage to their swelled, softened and colored form
When does Veraison occur?
Verasion usually occurs in early August in the Northern Hemisphere (with regional variations.)
What is transpiration of a grapevine?
Transpiration is the evaporation of water from the vine, which cools and leaves and provides the force for lifting water and nutrients from the roots to the stems and fruits.
What is a hybrid?
A hybrid is a crossing of two varieties from the different species (an interspecific crossing).
Between a maritime and a continental climate, which has a narrower range of temperature fluctuations?
A maritime climate has a narrower range of temperature fluctuations.
What are the three layers of the earths soil?
The Soil, Sub-Soil & Bedrock.
What are the three major nutrients needed by vines?
The major nutrients needed by vines are Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P) & Potassium (K).
What is Botrytis Cinerea?
Botrytis Cinerea is a fungal disease that can adversely affect a vine, diminishing its yield and quality, if it attacks almost ripe grapes during humid weather.
True or False
Botrytis Cinerea is the fungus responsible for great wines like Sauternes and Tröckenbeerenauslese.
What type of disease is Pierce's Disease?
Pierce's Disease is a bacterial disease, spread by the glassy-winged sharpshooter that clogs the vascular system of the vine. There is no known cure.
What is Biodynamic Viticulture?
Biodynamic Viticulture a method of agriculture that avoids the use of chemicals and seeks to actively work with the health-giving forces of nature.
What is an Organic Wine?
Organic Wine are those produced from certified organic vineyards and made with only naturally occurring materials including fertilizers. pesticides and processing agents.
Are there any commercial produced wines that do not have sulfates?
True or False
Integrated Pest Management (IPM) utilizes pesticides as a means to combat insects in the vineyard?
What is responsible for the majority of crop loss in vineyards?
What are some methods used to prevent frost damage?
There are many methods to preventing frost damage. Wind Machines, such as the large motor-driven propellers widely used in California, circulate warm and cold air through the vineyard. Heaters and oil burners are used to raise the temperatures. Another method is aspersion, or sprinkling water over the vines. The release of latent heat as the water freezes on the vines protects the vine tissue from injury.
Match the grape Variety with the Classic Region
Pinotage - South Africa
Cabernet Sauvignon - Bordeaux - Left Bank (Médeoc)
Sangiovese - Toscana - Chianti
Sangiovese Grosso - Toscana - Montalcino
Nebbiolo - Piemonte
Match the grape Variety with the Classic Region
Dolcetto - Piemonte
Mourvédre - Rhône Valley
Barbara - Piemonte
Touriga Nacional - Portuga; - Douro Valley
Merlot - Bordeaux - Right Bank (Pomeral, St. Emilion)
Match the grape Variety with the Classic Region
Cinsault - Rhône Valley
Zinfandel - California
Pinot Noir - Burgundy & Champagne
Muscadet - Loire Valley
Syrah - Rhône Valley
Match the grape Variety with the Classic Region
Grenache - Rhône Valley
Chardonnay - Burgundy & Champagne
Moscato - Piemonte - Asti
Riesling - Germany
Gewurztrminer - Alsace
Match the grape Variety with the Classic Region
Macabeo - Penèdes - Cava
Albariño - Galicia
Pinot Blanc - Alsace
Pinot Gris - Alsace
Palomino - Jerez
Match the grape Variety with the Classic Region
Viognier - Rhone Valley (Condrieu)
Chenin Blanc - Loire Valley - Vouvray
Semillon - Bordeaux - Sauternes
Sauvgnon Blanc - Loire Valley - Sancerre, Pouilly-Fumé