The basic unit from which a living organism is made; consists of an aqueous solution of organic molecules enclosed by a membrane.
The study of cells and their structure, function and behavior.
Hairlike structure made of microtubules found on the surface of many eukaryotic cells; when present in large numbers, its rhythmic beating can drive the movement of fluid over the cell surface, as in the epithelium of lungs.
Double-stranded polynucleotide formed from two separate chains of covalently linked deoxyribonucleotide units. It serves as the cell's store of genetic information that is transmitted from generation to generation.
Molecule produced by the transcription DNA; usually single-stranded , it is a polynucleotide composed of covalently linked ribonucleotide subunits. Serves a variety of structural, catalytic and regulatory functions as well.
Polymer built from amino acids that provides cells with their shape and structure and performs most of their activities.
Th principle that genetic information flows from DNA to RNA to protein.
Small organic molecule containing both an amino group and a carboxylic group; it serves as the building block of proteins.
Precise, three-dimensional shape of a protein or other macromolecule, based on the spatial location of its atoms in relation to one another.
A randomly produced, permanent change in the nucleotide sequence of DNA.
Process of gradual modification and adaptation that occurs in living organisms over generations.
The total genetic information carried by all the chromosomes of a cell or organism.
Instrument for viewing extremely small objects.
Uses a focused beam of visible light and is used to examine cells and organelles.
Instrument that illuminates a specimen using beams of electrons to reveal and magnify the structures of very small objects, such as organelles and large molecules.
All living cells are formed by the growth and division of existing cells.
Complex network of polysaccharides and proteins secreted by cells. A structural component of tissues that also influences their development and physiology.
The prominent, rounded structure that contains the DNA of a eukaryotic cell.
Contents of a cell that are contained within its plasma membrane but, in the case of eukaryotic cells, contained outside the nucleus.
Instrument used to visualize a specimen that has been labeled with a fluorescent dye; samples are illuminated with a wavelength of light that excites the dye, causing it to fluoresce.
Large macromolecular complex, composed of ribosomal RNAs and ribosomal proteins, that translates messenger RNA into protein.
When tissue is preserved by pickling in a reactive chemical solution.
A discrete structure or subcompartment of a eukaryotic cell that is specialized to carry out a particular function.
The protein -containing lipid bilayer that surrounds a living cell.
The membranes surrounding organelles.
An organism whose cells have a distinct nucleus and cytoplasm.
Major category of living cells distinguished by the absence of a nucleus. Include archaea and bacteria.
One of the two divisions of prokaryotes; some species cause disease. The term is sometimes used to refer to any prokaryotic microorganism, although the world of prokaryotes also includes archaea, which are only distantly related.
One of the two divisions of prokaryotes, often found in hostile environments such as hot springs or concentrated brine.
Membrane-enclosed organelle, about the size of a bacterium, that carries out oxidative phosphorylation and produces most of the ATP in eukaryotic cells.
The process by which plants, algae and some bacteria use the energy of sunlight to drive the synthesis of organic molecules form carbon dioxide and water.
Specialized organelle in algae and plants that contains chlorophyll and serves as the site in which photosynthesis takes place.
Double membrane surrounding the nucleus. Consists of outer and inner membranes, perforated by nuclear pores.
Long, threadlike structure composed of DNA and proteins that carries the genetic information of an organism; becomes visible as a distinct entity when a plant or animal cell prepares to divide.
Molecule that serves as the principle carrier of energy in cells; this nucleoside triphosphate is composed of adenine, ribose, and three phosphates.
Intimate association between two organisms of different species from which both derive a long-term selective advantage.
Light-absorbing green pigment that plays a central part in photosynthesis.
Labyrinthine membrane-enclosed compartment in the cytoplasm of eukaryotic cells where lipids and proteins are made.
Membrane-enclosed organelle in eukaryotic cells that modifies the proteins and lipids made in the ER and sorts them for transport to other sites.
Membrane-enclosed organelle that breaks down worn-out proteins and organelles and other waste materials, as well as molecules taken up by endocytosis; contains digestive enzymes that are typically most active at the acid pH found inside these organelles.
Small membrane-enclosed organelle that contains enzymes that degrade lipids and destroy toxins.
Process by which cells take in materials through an invagination of the plasma membrane, which surrounds the ingested material in the membrane-enclosed vesicle.
Process by which most molecules are secreted from a eukaryotic cell. These molecules are packaged in membrane-enclosed vesicles that fuse with the plasma membrane, releasing their contents to the outside.
Contents of the main compartment of the cytoplasm, excluding the membrane-enclosed organelles such as ER and mitochondria. The cell fraction remaining after membranes, cytoskeletal components, and other organelles have been removed.
System of protein filaments in the cytoplasm of a eukaryotic cell that gives the cell shape and the capacity for directed movement. Its most abundant components are actin filaments, microtubules and intermediate filaments.
Thin, flexible protein filament made from a chain of globular actin molecules; a major constituent of all eukaryotic cells, this cytoskeletal element is essential for cell movement and for the contraction of muscle cells.
Long, stiff, cylindrical structure composed of the protein tubulin. Used by eukaryotic cells to organize their cytoplasm and guide the intracellular transport of macromolecules and organelles.
Fibrous cytoskeletal element, about 10 nm in diameter, that forms ropelike networks in animal cells; helps cells resist tension applied from outside.
Protein such as myosin or kinesin that uses energy derived from ATP hydrolysis to propel itself along a protein filament or polymeric molecule.
A free-living, non photosynthetic, single-celled, motile eukaryote.
A living thing selected for intensive study as a representative for a large group of species.
Rodlike bacterium normally found in the colon of humans and other mammals and widely used in biomedical research.
A tightly controlled form of programmed cell death that allows cells that are unneeded or unwanted to be eliminated from an adult or developing organism.
Term used by biochemists to describe a process that takes place in an isolated cell-free extract. Also used by cell biologists to refer to cells growing in culture, as opposed to in an organism.
In an intact cell or organism.
Describes genes, chromosomes, or any structures that are similar because of their common evolutionary origin. Can also refer to similarities between protein sequences or nucleic acid sequences.
AP Biology Cell Structure and Function Vocab45 terms