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The act of tolerating something. A disposition to allow freedom of choice and behavior. Willingness to recognize and respect the beliefs or practices of others.
Unwillingness to recognize and respect differences in opinions or beliefs. A lack of acceptance of another person's opinions, beliefs, or actions.
A concept is essentially contested if it is constinually scrutinised and the subject of intractable disputes about how to interpret it.
Conceptions of tolerance
Gallie argued there are four practical levels of tolerance: permission conception, co-existence conception, respect conception and esteem conception.
Paradoxes of toleration
The apparent contradictions that arise from attempts to reconcile reasons for objecting to, accepting and rejecting beliefs and practices.
Argued we should tolerate illiberal beliefs but not the actions/practices that stem from these beliefs as such actions are at odds with a liberal society. I.e. one could be prejudice (thought) but not discriminate (action) based on that prejudice.
Defended liberalism, tolerance and wrote 'the Open Society.' Argued rational argument should be used to challenge intolerant opinions and individuals, however accepted that we should not tolerate intolerance that threatened tolerance or could not be combated with rational argument I.e. Islamic fundamentalism.
a society that allows its members considerable freedom (as in a democracy). Society where the gov. is claimed to be responsive and tolerant and there are no secrets, the state does not control or supervise citizens who all have freedom of speech.
The harm principle
The principle, defended by John Stuart Mill and others, that we should be allowed to do whatever we want unless our actions harm or threaten harm to others.
John Stuart Mill
liberal thinker who believed that freedom and liberty comes from individualism. If the government makes all the decisions regarding freedoms then they aren't really free, and there is tyranny of majority.
Fused thoughts of Sigmund Freud and Karl Marx. Introduced the concept of repressive desublimation (social control can operate not only by direct control, but by manipulation of desire). Analyzed the role of propaganda.
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