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ANPS Lab Flash Cards Exam 4

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Which of the following male reproductive structures produces spermatozoa and androgen hormones (primarily testosterone)?
testes
What is the name of the structure that carries sperm from the epididymis to the internal pelvic cavity of a male?
ductus deferens
Which of the following male glands has both the urethra and the ejaculatory duct passing through it?
prostate gland
Which of the following correctly lists the order sperm would pass on the way out of the body?
Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and penile urethra
The ductus or vas deferens
enlarges distally to form the ampulla
Comparing male versus female anatomy, it is evident that
only the male urethra functions in both the urinary and reproductive systems
Seminal fluid
is produced by the prostate, bulbo-urethral, and seminal vesicles
Testosterone is produced in the
interstitial cells
Sperm is produced in the _____ and stored in the _____.
seminiferours tubules, epididymis
Which of the following correctly describes the spermatic cord?
the pampiniform plexus lies within the cord
Which female reproductive structure secretes female sex hormones and produces oocytes?
ovaries
Which tubes is found anterior to the vagina?
urethra
Which female reproductive structure is NOT found in the internal pelvic cavity of the female?
Labia minus and majus
in which structure does the antrum, an expanded central chamber of the follicle, first appear
tertiary follice
Which structure secretes progesterone and estrogens?
corpus luteum
A primordial follicle
is an inactive primary oocyte that is surrounded by a single squamous layer of follicle cells
The female gonad is the _____ and the gamete is a/an _____.
ovary; oocyte
The vagina is
all the listed responses are correct
The vagina is
anterior to the rectum, posterior to the urethra, inferior to the ovaries
In its normal position, the uterus body of the uteus bends anteriorly, lying across the superior and posterior surfaces of the urinary bladder. This position is known as
anteflexion
The layers of the uterine wall from outer to inner are
perimetrium, myometrium, endometrium
The regions of the uterus are the
fundus, body, and cervix
Fertilization typically occurs in the
ampulla of the uterine tubes
Blood supply to the uterus
comes from the uterine and ovarian arteries
Nutrient rich blood travels to the fetus via
an umbilical vein
Oxygen delivery to the fetus occurs
when oxygen diffuses from maternal blood into the chorionic villi and then to fetal vessels
The chorionic villi
provide a surface area for active and passive exhange between maternal and fetal bloodstreams
An embryo becomes a fetus at about _____ after fertilization.
9 weeks
As pregnancy progresses, the
growing fetus puts pressure on the underlying urinary bladder of the mother
A breech birth occurs when a fetus enters the birth canal with its
legs or buttocks first
Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
blood cells and large particles
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
Hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged?
Protein
If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?
net filtration would decrease
Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm HG, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg
25 mm Hg
Which of the choices below bests describes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
Which of the following best describes the passive force that creates filtrate?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)
What is the primary regulatory mechanism that maintains glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
autoregulation
Which of the following GFR-regulating mechanisms is initated by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?
Renin-antiotensin system
The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulariton primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?
Afferent arterioles
In the event of a severe increase in systemic blood pressure, what mechanism would increase GFR?
release of ANP and BNP
What enzyme is released by the juxtaglomerular complex to regulate GFR?
renin
Which of the choices below best describes the autonomic mechanism for regulating GFR
Sympathetic fibers override local controls to decrease the GFR
What are the two main parts of the nephron?
the renal corpuscle and the renal tubule
Which of the following describes the order in which blood flows through the nephron?
afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole
Which of the following is not a fucntion of the kidneys?
exchange of oxygen an dcarbon dioxide with the tissues
Which of the following should NOT be found in the filtrate in the Bowman's capsule
white blood cells
Which structures form the filtration membrane in the nephron
glomerulus and the glomerular capsule
Which of the following resulted in an increase in glomerular filtration rate?
Decreasing the efferent arteriole diameter and increasing hte afferent arteriole diameter
Which of the following resulted in a decreased in glomerular capillary pressure?
Increasing the efferent arteriole diameter and decreasing the afferent arteriole diameter
What is the normal range for glomerular filtration rate?
80-140 ml/min
What is (are) the driving force(s) for filtration in the nephron
hydrostatic pressure gradients, osmotic pressure gradients, and Starling forces
The functions of the nephron include all of the following except _____.
glomerular secretion
What is the naame for the "ball" of capillaries found in the renal corpuscle
glomerulus
As the pressure in the beaker was increased, which of the following occurred?
Glomerular filtration was increased, and urine volume increased
With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed, __________
urine volume was zero
With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed and with the pressure increased, _________
the glomerular filtration rate increased and the glomerular pressure increased
Altering the radii of the afferent and efferent arterioles provides for _______
glomerular filtration rate homeostasis and glomerular hydrostatic pressure homeostasis
Because the alteration of the afferent or efferent arterioles occurs within the nephron, we refer to this mechanism as ____
intrinsic
Which of the following would decrease glomerular filtration rate
increasing the efferent arteriole radius and decreasing the afferent arteriole
In this activity, the drain beaker (second beaker in the flow) stimulates the ___
renal vein
When the beaker pressure was lowered, which of the following decreased?
glomerular pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and urine volume
When blood pressure increased, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate
Constriction of the afferent arteriole and dilation of the efferent arteriole
When the efferent arteriole constricts, _____
the back pressure in the Bowman's capsule increases
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following tubules?
transcellular
During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubue, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?
an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
The decreased intracellular concentration of sodum in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
the sodium-potassium ATPas pump in the basolateral membrane
The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?
sodium
Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?
Na+-H+ countertransport
What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?
Number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane
Glucose is reabsorbed _______
All of the above are correct
Glucose is reabsorbed _____
by secondary active transport, by facilitated diffusion, through transmembrane proteins, into the peritubular capillaries
Glucose reabsorption occurs in the _______
proximal convoluted tubule
Glucose is transported ________
through the basolateral membrane by facilitated diffusion
As the number of glucose carriers increased, the concentration of glucose in the ________
distal tubule decreased and bladder decreased
At which concentration of glucose carriers was the glucose concentration reduced to zero?
400
When the glucose transport maximum is reached, _______
glucose is excreted in the urine and not all of the glucose is reabsorbed
ADH is produced in the _______
hypothalamus
The secretion of aldosterone is directly stimulated by ______
angiotensin II
The secretion of ADH is directly stimulated by ______
a change in body fluid osmolarity
Which of the following are hormones?
ADH, and aldosterone
The addition of aldosterone
decreased the urine volume
With ADH added but in the absences of aldosterone, ______
the potassium concentration increased and urine volume decreased
The urine was the most concnetrated ____
with both ADH and aldosterone
Which hormone had the greater effect on urine volume?
ADH
Which of the following is NOT one of the body's physiological chemical buffering systems?
hydrochloride
Which of the following has the greatest capacity for pH change in the body
renal system
Respiratory alkalosis is a result of _____
too little carbon dioxide in the blood
Hyperventilation is defined as _____
an increase in the rate and depth of breathing
What is the normal range for the partial pressure of carbon dioxide in the blood?
35-45 mm HG
Hyperventilation can result in _______
too little carbon dioxide in the blood
Respiratory alkalosis is characterized by a blood pH ______
greater than 7.45
Why was the breath held after the second hyperventilation?
to retain carbon dioxide
The formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide is catalyzed by ______
carbonic anhydrase
Too much carbon dioxide in the blood can be the result of ______
emphysema
When does rebreathing stimulate hypoventilation?
Carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood with either
Respiratory acidosis is a result of ____
an increase in the H+ in the blood
Respiratory acidosis can be a result of _____
asthma
Which of the following occurred during rebreathing?
carbon dioxide increased
Respiratory acidosis can be compensated for by _____
the kidneys
Carbon dioxide levels in the blood and blood pH are _______
inversely proportional to each other
How do the kidneys compensate for acid-base imbalances?
all of the above
How do the kidneys compensate for acid-base imbalances
by excreting H+, bicarbonate ion and by reabsorbing H+ and bicarbonate ion
Which of the following have the same effect on plasma pH/
reabsorption of bicarbonate and excretion of H+
The movement of fluid and solutes from the peritubular capillary to the renal tubule is reffered to as
tubular secretion
The nephron is responsible for maintaining ______
all of the above
The nephron is responsible for maintaining _____
fluid balance in the body, acid-base balance in the body, electrolyte balance in the body
The kidneys compensate for respiratory alkalosis by _____
conserving H+ and excreting bicarbonate ion
In uncompensated respiratory acidosis, the ____
carbon dioxide levels of the blood are elevated
When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was decreased, what changes occured in the urine?
H+ in the urine decreased and bicarbonate ion increased in the urine
At which partial pressure of carbon dioxide did respiratory acidosis occur?
60 mm Hg
Excessive diarrhea results in whcih of the following?
Loss of bicarbonate, metabolic acidosis
Ingestion of too much alcohol results in which of the follwoing?
gain of acid, metabolic acidosis
Which of the following does NOT result in metaboli alkalosis?
hyperventilation
Ketoacidosis is usually a result of _____
uncontrolled diabetes mellitus
Compensation of metabolic alkalosis includes which of the following?
excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system
Metabolic acidosis results in ____
hyperventilation
Which metabolic rate resulted in metabolic acidosis?
80 kcal/hr
Which of the following occurred when the metabolic rate was set to 20 kcal/hr?
metabolic alkalosis and hypoventilation