Which of the following male reproductive structures produces spermatozoa and androgen hormones (primarily testosterone)?
What is the name of the structure that carries sperm from the epididymis to the internal pelvic cavity of a male?
Which of the following male glands has both the urethra and the ejaculatory duct passing through it?
Which of the following correctly lists the order sperm would pass on the way out of the body?
Epididymis, ductus deferens, ejaculatory duct, and penile urethra
Comparing male versus female anatomy, it is evident that
only the male urethra functions in both the urinary and reproductive systems
Which of the following correctly describes the spermatic cord?
the pampiniform plexus lies within the cord
Which female reproductive structure is NOT found in the internal pelvic cavity of the female?
Labia minus and majus
in which structure does the antrum, an expanded central chamber of the follicle, first appear
A primordial follicle
is an inactive primary oocyte that is surrounded by a single squamous layer of follicle cells
In its normal position, the uterus body of the uteus bends anteriorly, lying across the superior and posterior surfaces of the urinary bladder. This position is known as
Oxygen delivery to the fetus occurs
when oxygen diffuses from maternal blood into the chorionic villi and then to fetal vessels
The chorionic villi
provide a surface area for active and passive exhange between maternal and fetal bloodstreams
As pregnancy progresses, the
growing fetus puts pressure on the underlying urinary bladder of the mother
Which of the following substances is not normally found in filtrate?
blood cells and large particles
What is the primary driving force (pressure) that produces glomerular filtration?
Hydrostatic pressure of blood (blood pressure)
Which of the following would only be found in the glomerular filtrate if the glomerular membrane were damaged?
If the osmotic pressure in the glomerular capillaries increased from 28 mm Hg to 35 mm Hg, would net filtration increase or decrease?
net filtration would decrease
Calculate the net filtration pressure if capillary hydrostatic pressure is 60 mm HG, capillary osmotic pressure is 25 mm Hg, and capsular hydrostatic pressure is 10 mm Hg
25 mm Hg
Which of the choices below bests describes the glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
the volume of filtrate created by the kidneys per minute
Which of the following best describes the passive force that creates filtrate?
glomerular hydrostatic pressure (GHP)
What is the primary regulatory mechanism that maintains glomerular filtration rate (GFR)?
Which of the following GFR-regulating mechanisms is initated by cells of the juxtaglomerular complex?
The myogenic mechanism of renal autoregulariton primarily involves smooth muscle in which blood vessels?
In the event of a severe increase in systemic blood pressure, what mechanism would increase GFR?
release of ANP and BNP
Which of the choices below best describes the autonomic mechanism for regulating GFR
Sympathetic fibers override local controls to decrease the GFR
Which of the following describes the order in which blood flows through the nephron?
afferent arteriole, glomerulus, efferent arteriole
Which of the following is not a fucntion of the kidneys?
exchange of oxygen an dcarbon dioxide with the tissues
Which of the following should NOT be found in the filtrate in the Bowman's capsule
white blood cells
Which of the following resulted in an increase in glomerular filtration rate?
Decreasing the efferent arteriole diameter and increasing hte afferent arteriole diameter
Which of the following resulted in a decreased in glomerular capillary pressure?
Increasing the efferent arteriole diameter and decreasing the afferent arteriole diameter
What is (are) the driving force(s) for filtration in the nephron
hydrostatic pressure gradients, osmotic pressure gradients, and Starling forces
As the pressure in the beaker was increased, which of the following occurred?
Glomerular filtration was increased, and urine volume increased
With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed, __________
urine volume was zero
With the valve between the collecting duct and the urinary bladder closed and with the pressure increased, _________
the glomerular filtration rate increased and the glomerular pressure increased
Altering the radii of the afferent and efferent arterioles provides for _______
glomerular filtration rate homeostasis and glomerular hydrostatic pressure homeostasis
Because the alteration of the afferent or efferent arterioles occurs within the nephron, we refer to this mechanism as ____
Which of the following would decrease glomerular filtration rate
increasing the efferent arteriole radius and decreasing the afferent arteriole
When the beaker pressure was lowered, which of the following decreased?
glomerular pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and urine volume
When blood pressure increased, what changes can occur to maintain glomerular filtration rate
Constriction of the afferent arteriole and dilation of the efferent arteriole
Most solutes that are reabsorbed in the proximal convoluted tubule use which of the following tubules?
During reabsorption of water in the proximal convoluted tubue, what causes water to diffuse from the lumen into the interstitial space?
an increase in the osmolarity of the interstitium
The decreased intracellular concentration of sodum in tubular cells during active transport is caused by which of the following mechanisms?
the sodium-potassium ATPas pump in the basolateral membrane
The active transport of which ion out of proximal convoluted tubule cells causes the reabsorption of both water and solutes?
Which of the following transporters in the luminal membrane results in secretion?
What is the limiting factor for the reabsorption of most actively transported solutes in the proximal tubule?
Number of transport carriers in the luminal membrane
Glucose is reabsorbed _____
by secondary active transport, by facilitated diffusion, through transmembrane proteins, into the peritubular capillaries
As the number of glucose carriers increased, the concentration of glucose in the ________
distal tubule decreased and bladder decreased
When the glucose transport maximum is reached, _______
glucose is excreted in the urine and not all of the glucose is reabsorbed
With ADH added but in the absences of aldosterone, ______
the potassium concentration increased and urine volume decreased
Which of the following is NOT one of the body's physiological chemical buffering systems?
The formation of carbonic acid from water and carbon dioxide is catalyzed by ______
When does rebreathing stimulate hypoventilation?
Carbon dioxide accumulates in the blood with either
How do the kidneys compensate for acid-base imbalances
by excreting H+, bicarbonate ion and by reabsorbing H+ and bicarbonate ion
Which of the following have the same effect on plasma pH/
reabsorption of bicarbonate and excretion of H+
The movement of fluid and solutes from the peritubular capillary to the renal tubule is reffered to as
The nephron is responsible for maintaining _____
fluid balance in the body, acid-base balance in the body, electrolyte balance in the body
The kidneys compensate for respiratory alkalosis by _____
conserving H+ and excreting bicarbonate ion
When the partial pressure of carbon dioxide was decreased, what changes occured in the urine?
H+ in the urine decreased and bicarbonate ion increased in the urine
Compensation of metabolic alkalosis includes which of the following?
excreting bicarbonate ion in the renal system and retaining carbon dioxide through the respiratory system