CITI training responsible conduct

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According to the U.S. Federal Research Misconduct Policy, fabrication involves:
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In the research context, the term validity most commonly refers to:Whether operationalized concepts actually measure what they purport to measure.Which of the following statements is true concerning data selection?Establishing a data selection strategy prior to collecting data decreases the chance of a biased outcome.Which of following is most likely to own the data resulting from a research project?The institution where a federally-funded project takes place.Which of the following is true regarding data sharing and stewardship?Agencies that fund research may include data sharing requirements in their funding contracts.Which of the following most accurately describes the practice of ghost authorship?It is a situation where the individual who wrote the manuscript is not listed as an author.Which of the following is a responsibility of each author?Confirming that data have been accurately presented.Which of the following is an example of plagiarism?Presenting someone else's ideas or words and claiming them as one's own.Which of the following is true regarding an acknowledgments section?The contributions of students and technicians are often listed in the acknowledgments section if they do not meet all of the criteria for authorship.Which of the following is true regarding publishing the same content in multiple papers?Using the same content in multiple papers is deceptive if it is not properly disclosed.Which author is normally responsible for sharing reprints of a publication with readers?The corresponding author.Which of the following statements is true regarding the International Committee of Medical Journal Editors (ICMJE) guidelines?Individuals who do not meet the criteria for authorship but who have made a noteworthy contribution are normally listed in the acknowledgments section.Which of the following is the primary criterion for authorship?Having made a significant intellectual contribution to the work.Which of the following statements is true regarding authorship practices?Different disciplines have different practices about who should be included as an author.Which of the following statements most accurately describes the review process for grant proposals?Funding agencies usually have committees, often with external reviewers, that assess the quality of the proposal.A reviewer's main responsibility is to:Be professional and prompt.The two main criteria that the National Science Foundation (NSF) uses to evaluate grant proposals are:Intellectual merits and broader impacts.Which of the following statements is true regarding the responsibilities of a reviewer?A reviewer's conflict of interest should be disclosed to the journal editor or grant agencyWhich of the following is true regarding single-blind and double-blind review:Under single-blind review, the identity of the author is revealed to the reviewer.The main reason that grant proposal reviewers with a conflict of interest should remove themselves from the review process is because:Their removal lessens the chance that bias will affect the review process​.Which of the following is most directly related to successful mentoring?Someone who is committed to the professional development of the trainee.What is the most appropriate course of action for a trainee who has a problem with a mentor?After first attempting to communicate directly with the mentor, the trainee should seek the counsel of a trusted senior person in the department or organization.Which of the following is to be avoided when seeking an effective mentor?Trainees should assume that whoever is assigned to them as the thesis or research adviser will be their best choice for a mentor.Which of the following most accurately describes the responsibilities of a trainee in the mentoring relationship?The trainee must take an active role in the relationship and clearly communicate needs and expectations.Which of the following statements most accurately describes the mentoring relationship?Mentors teach trainees about aspects of academic life that are not covered in textbooks.Which of the following statements best exemplifies the importance of mentoring?A mechanism to transmit values and standards of professional conduct.The defining characteristic of a mentor is someone who:Takes a sincere interest in the growth and development of a trainee.Which of the following is most likely to create a poor relationship between mentor and trainee?A faculty member searches out trainees merely for that person's own career advancement.Which of following is true about the management of conflicts of interest?Management plans are often created to reduce the impact of conflicts of interest rather than completely eliminating them.If researchers allow their moral or other personal beliefs to influence their objectivity, this is most likely an example of:A conflict of conscienceWhich of the following most accurately describes a conflict of commitment?It occurs when outside activities interfere with obligations to one's primary employer.The main focus of NIH's conflict of interest policy is:Financial conflicts of interestThe entity that normally is supposed to determine whether an academic researcher's conflict of interest can be managed is:A conflict of interest committeeWhich of the following most clearly illustrates an example of an academic conflict of interest?A researcher becomes overly attached to a specific research outcome.Which of the following most accurately describes an institutional conflict of interest?It occurs when an institution's financial interests could interfere with its research activities.Which of following is true about conflicts of interest?They increase the likelihood of bias.if an employer allows a friendship to interfere with a hiring decision, this is typically referred to as:A personal conflict of interest.Data ownership is typically determined by:The type and source of funds used to support the project.Which of the following is a key reason why international collaborations can be challenging?Language barriers and cultural differences among collaborators can complicate communication.Which of the following is true regarding academic-industry collaborations?The industry sponsor typically owns the data from research that it funds.What is the most appropriate process for determining which journal a collaborative research team should submit their work to?It should be discussed early on in the collaboration by the members of the research team.Which of the following is true regarding industry-sponsored research?Industry sponsors of research may place restrictions on the disclosure of research results.What is the main function of the Bayh-Dole Act of 1980 as it relates academic institutions?It allows institutions to have control over the intellectual property from federally-funded research.What is the main function of a Technology Transfer Office?It helps researchers to commercialize their work.A research collaboration can be enhanced by:Discussing intellectual property issues while the collaboration is forming.Which of the following is true regarding the use of animals in research?The attending veterinarian must be allowed to have access to all research animals at all times.Which of the following is the main reason why proper training in euthanasia techniques is important?Improper techniques can cause unnecessary pain and distress in animals.Which of the following is empowered by the U.S. federal government to review and approve research activities involving vertebrate animals?The Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC)Prior to implementing any significant change in the use of animals, what is the most important thing that the research team must do?Obtain IACUC approval for the change.Which of the following most accurately describes the process that must occur when working with research animals covered by U.S. federal regulations?The research team must obtain IACUC approval for the proposed research procedures prior to starting the work.Which entity is responsible for monitoring institutional compliance with PHS Policy?The Office of Laboratory Animal Welfare (OLAW)What is the primary purpose of the "3Rs" concept from Russell and Burch?To decrease the use of animals in research and to minimize pain and distress caused by animal experiments.Which of the following is the general guideline that IACUCs use to evaluate the potential pain of a procedure conducted with animals?Any procedure that causes pain or distress in human beings may cause pain or distress in other animals.Which justification would an IACUC most likely accept if a research team plans to withhold pain relief (analgesia) from animals during a project?Which statement best describes information that must be included in a consent form:A description of the research's potential benefits and risks.Which of the following best describes when a protocol may be eligible for expedited review by the IRB:The study involves no more than minimal risk and meets one of the allowable categories of expedited review specified by the federal government.Which of the following statements most clearly illustrates the principle of beneficence:Determining whether the benefits of a study outweigh the risks.Which statement best describes the role of an IRB:a committee that reviews different types of human subjects research.Which of the following studies most directly contributed to the establishment of the National Research Act and the creation of the Belmont Report:The Tuskegee Study.The three ethical principles discussed in the Belmont Report are:Respect for Persons, Beneficence, Justice.As a first step, what must be done before enrolling a young child in a research protocol:the risks and benefits must be explained to the child's parents or legally authorized representative.Which statement most accurately describes the process leading to the development of the Nuremberg Code:it was created in response to the harms caused by Nazi researchers around the time of the Second World War.Which of following protocols most likely requires IRB review:A study to evaluate a newly designed wheelchair by asking elderly individuals to use it.Which statement best describes what an IRB is responsible for reviewing:Any form of research involving a human subject.Award documentation is typically required to be prepared and submitted within how long after the end of a project period:90 daysWhat are the main elements necessary for ensuring that costs are appropriately charged?Applying allocable, allowable, consistent, and reasonable costing policies and procedures.Which of the following most accurately describes what effort reporting is supposed to capture?Compensated activitiesWhich of the following most accurately describes voluntary committed cost sharing?It means that the cost share is quantified in the proposal but not required by the sponsor.Which of the following most accurately describes the main purpose of the OMB Circulars?They outline the rules for the financial management of sponsored projects.Which of the following most accurately describes good mentoring practice?Encouraging trainees to receive mentoring from a collection of individuals.Which of the following statements is true regarding the responsibilities of reviewers?Reviewers should identify the positive and negative aspects of a manuscript, and indicate where improvements are needed.Reviewers have a responsibility to promote ethical peer review by:A reviewer's conflict of interest should be disclosed to the journal editor or grant agency.Which of the following is the most appropriate step to take if authors believe that their manuscript was reviewed unfairly?The author can contact the editor with their concerns.The typical first main phase in response to a research misconduct allegation is called:The inquiryWhich type of research misconduct most likely occurred if a researcher takes credit for someone else's idea and does not acknowledge the original source?PlagiarismUnless the subject matter is considered common knowledge, citations are necessary when writing about:Ideas, methodologies, or data from other authors and also your own previously published ideas, methodologies, or data.Authors who reuse portions of text that have appeared in one of their earlier published papers run the risk of being accused by journal editors of:Self-plagiarismThe reuse of previously published material in a new journal article is most appropriate if:The author informs all the relevant parties and has obtained permission to do so.Ethical writing and scholarship is based on an implicit contract between the author and readers, whereby readers assume that what they read is accurate, has been written by the author, and has:Not been disseminated before unless noted otherwise.According to federal research misconduct policies, what is the maximum number of consecutive words that one can use before it is classified as an instance of plagiarism?There is no official, federal standard for the number of consecutive words that can be used.Which of the following most accurately describes technological momentum?It is a system's inertia or resistance to change.Michael McFarland argues that proximity is one reason why researchers have an obligation to help the public. Which of following most accurately describes what McFarland means by proximity?Having the specialized expertise to reduce technical risks.The authors Martin and Schinzinger claim that researchers have special obligations to society primarily because:Research and innovation can be considered potentially risky experiments that involve society.The main way in which the organization Doctors Without Borders acts on social responsibilities is by:Providing medical care in emergency situations.Social responsibility is usually expressed in professional codes of ethics by stating that:Researchers have an obligation to the public.In order to avoid the chance that a design will fail, an engineer should do all of the following except:Weigh the employer's financial interests as the paramount concern.The anthropocentric viewpoint implies that:Engineers should consider how much pollution their devices create because of how human health is affected.Immanuel Kant's categorical imperative suggests that:An action is morally correct if can be universalized.Requiring industries to recycle 25% of plastics in their manufacturing process is an example of:Risk management.Which of the following is the clearest example of a macroethical issue?Balancing risks and benefits from nanotechnology research.