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23 terms

Clinical Pathology

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Clinical Pathology
Evaluation of patient conditions by way of analysis of body fluids, tissue samples, or necropsy
Aspects of pathology
Hematology
Clinical Chemistry
Urinalysis
Fecal Analysis
Biopsy
Histology
Hematology
study of blood cells (R,W,P)
Use anticoagulant so platelets won't clot - then called plasma
Clinical Chemistry
Chemical enzymes, molecules in blood
looks at fluid part of blood - not cells
Use serum - part of blood that doesn't have the coagulation factors
allows to look at enzymes that come from liver, ie. abnormal - something wrong with the liver
Urinalysis
blood, protein, glucose (indication of kidney disease)
Feces
parasites
puppy/kitten with diarrhea - step 1. fecal sample
Biopsy
taking SOLID tissue
Skin biopsy - epi, dermis, subcutaneous
needle biopsy (aspiration) - only tiny amount taken - gets smooshed in needle
punch biopsy - takes chunk - used for skin
wedge biopsy - take section
make slide of tissue - HISTOLOGY
Cytology
anything liquid - looking at for pathology
abdominocentesis - ascites - looking at liquid
Hematology
Erythrocytes - red blood cells
Leukocytes - white blood cells
Thrombocytes - platelet cell (no nucleus in dogs and cats)
Erythrocyte indices - way to measure RBC - how big? shape? how much hemoglobin?
RBC have nucleus in birds and reptiles
Nucleated RBC in dogs and cats = something wrong - regenerative anemia?? baby red blood cells have nucleus
Clinical Chemistry 2
Serum vs plasma - we know this
Electrolytes - Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Phosphorous (P) = can use in diagnosis, ie. increased levels of K involved in contraction of the the heart muscle, - used in euthanization fluid.
Injectable bottle with black cap means it can kill you, ie. potassium.
Exocrine - delivers enzymes or chemical compounds to another part of the body via a duct. many times it's an enzyme
Endocrine Serology
Has to do with serum
Triaditis (gallbladder, duodenum, stomach)
Thyroid how to test - thyroid hormone
Adrenal gland - produces hormones that can be measured
Endocrine pancreas - insulin
Serum qualities
Serum should be transparent
lipemic - white - lipids
hemolyzed - red/pink - it was shaken
icteric - yellow serum
Test tubes
red top = no anticoagulant - serum - clinical chemistry
lavender top = anticoagulant= plasma - hematology
Clinical correlates
Cyanosis - tissues appear blue - see in gums first - indication of lack of oxygen
Icterus - Correlates with liver disease or red blood cells breaking - hemolytic anemia - in dogs - autoimmune
Hypersensitivity and blood smears
hypersensitivity - allergic = tons of mast cells
eosinophil - has histomines
MItotic figures
too many - cancer
if you see cells dividing abnormally and rapid - cancer
Renal histopathology
working unit of kidney = nephron
microtome - makes slices of kidney - falls into bowl of water and scooped up because so thin - can't touch
Biopsy
Punch
Wedge - Portosystemic Shunt
Needle
Urinalysis
Reagents - chemical that reacts to one specific chemical or molecule - strip - dipsticks
Color, odor, turbidity, amount
Glucosuria (blue square), crystalluria (struvite), proteinuria, hemoglobinuria
Anuria - kidney shut down = no urine
Urinalysis (Specific Gravity)
SG = molecular density of liquid compared to distilled water. 1.000 = distilled water
Dilute urine = SG close to distilled water
Concentrated urine = not a lot fluid high SG
PUPD
kidney disease - become dehydrated
SQ fluid for chronic
IV for acute
Fecal Analysis
Color (gray - pancreatic disease - stool chart - lol)
Blood, parasites (most often looking for this), fat (enteric - pancreatic disease)
Smear (putting feces on slide) and sediment (centrifuge)
Fecal float - add feces to fluid with high SG - parasite eggs will float to top
Necropsy
metastatic lung cancer - white under blood
heartworm - live in PA but travel to heart if bad