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Evaluation of patient conditions by way of analysis of body fluids, tissue samples, or necropsy
study of blood cells (R,W,P)
Use anticoagulant so platelets won't clot - then called plasma
Chemical enzymes, molecules in blood
looks at fluid part of blood - not cells
Use serum - part of blood that doesn't have the coagulation factors
allows to look at enzymes that come from liver, ie. abnormal - something wrong with the liver
taking SOLID tissue
Skin biopsy - epi, dermis, subcutaneous
needle biopsy (aspiration) - only tiny amount taken - gets smooshed in needle
punch biopsy - takes chunk - used for skin
wedge biopsy - take section
make slide of tissue - HISTOLOGY
Erythrocytes - red blood cells
Leukocytes - white blood cells
Thrombocytes - platelet cell (no nucleus in dogs and cats)
Erythrocyte indices - way to measure RBC - how big? shape? how much hemoglobin?
RBC have nucleus in birds and reptiles
Nucleated RBC in dogs and cats = something wrong - regenerative anemia?? baby red blood cells have nucleus
Clinical Chemistry 2
Serum vs plasma - we know this
Electrolytes - Sodium (Na), Potassium (K), Chloride (Cl), Phosphorous (P) = can use in diagnosis, ie. increased levels of K involved in contraction of the the heart muscle, - used in euthanization fluid.
Injectable bottle with black cap means it can kill you, ie. potassium.
Exocrine - delivers enzymes or chemical compounds to another part of the body via a duct. many times it's an enzyme
Has to do with serum
Triaditis (gallbladder, duodenum, stomach)
Thyroid how to test - thyroid hormone
Adrenal gland - produces hormones that can be measured
Endocrine pancreas - insulin
Serum should be transparent
lipemic - white - lipids
hemolyzed - red/pink - it was shaken
icteric - yellow serum
red top = no anticoagulant - serum - clinical chemistry
lavender top = anticoagulant= plasma - hematology
Cyanosis - tissues appear blue - see in gums first - indication of lack of oxygen
Icterus - Correlates with liver disease or red blood cells breaking - hemolytic anemia - in dogs - autoimmune
Hypersensitivity and blood smears
hypersensitivity - allergic = tons of mast cells
eosinophil - has histomines
working unit of kidney = nephron
microtome - makes slices of kidney - falls into bowl of water and scooped up because so thin - can't touch
Reagents - chemical that reacts to one specific chemical or molecule - strip - dipsticks
Color, odor, turbidity, amount
Glucosuria (blue square), crystalluria (struvite), proteinuria, hemoglobinuria
Anuria - kidney shut down = no urine
Urinalysis (Specific Gravity)
SG = molecular density of liquid compared to distilled water. 1.000 = distilled water
Dilute urine = SG close to distilled water
Concentrated urine = not a lot fluid high SG
Color (gray - pancreatic disease - stool chart - lol)
Blood, parasites (most often looking for this), fat (enteric - pancreatic disease)
Smear (putting feces on slide) and sediment (centrifuge)
Fecal float - add feces to fluid with high SG - parasite eggs will float to top
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