USH CH16 Test Review
Terms in this set (94)
entered into a pact or alliance with Germany in 1936
Locate Great Britain on the map. Why might it have been more difficult for Germany to occupy Britain than to occupy France?
Britain was surrounded by water
Which group of people suffered 6 million deaths during the Holocaust?
During which period did the unemployment rate drop most significantly?
1940 to 1945
What is the lowest percentage of unemployment graphed?
What was the Lend-Lease Act?
a policy allowing the president to provide arms to certain foreign countries
supported the Treaty of Versailles
When did Germany invade France?
Which of the following leaders transformed the Soviet Union from a rural nation into an industrial power?
Between 1940 and 1944, how did defense expenditures compare with the unemployment rate?
The unemployment rate decreased as defense spending increased.
Which of the following statements most accurately reflects Roosevelt's feelings toward joining the war?
He wanted to help the Allies but had to appease U.S. citizens who opposed entering the war.
*How does the map show one major reason Britain was able to fend off German occupation?
*Britain had the benefit of being surrounded by water, thus forcing the Germans to attack by sea and air
The result of this led Hitler to call off the invasion of Britain indefinitely.
Battle of Britain
Prior to the invasion of Poland, this is what Germany and the Soviet Union agreed to.
The terms of surrender forced on this nation included German occupation of the northern part of the country and the establishment of a Nazi-controlled puppet government in the southern part.
This British prime minister signed the Munich Pact.
After the fall of France, he set up a government in exile in Britain.
Charles de Gaulle
About the Munich Pact, he said, "Britain and France had to choose between war and dishonor. They chose dishonor. They will have war."
This nation ceased to exist after it was divided between Germany and the Soviet Union.
By signing the Munich Pact, Britain and France agreed to take this policy toward German aggression.
This country invaded Denmark, Norway, the Netherlands, Belgium, and Luxembourg.
In 1938, this country was Germany's first target.
This nation won the Battle of Britain.
This German military strategy of "lightning war" was first used in Poland.
Which countries on the map are identified as Axis powers?
Germany, Italy, Albania, East Prussia
During which period did defense expenditures increase the most?
1940 to 1945
*Summarize the time line of events shown in the map that led to Germany's control of the countries designated "Axis-controlled." Write one or more events for each of the following dates: 1938, 1939, 1940, 1941.
*In 1938 Germany took control of Austria and Czechoslovakia. Then, in 1939, Germany invaded Poland. In 1940 Germany turned toward the west, invading France, Belgium, and the Netherlands. Germany also invaded Norway. Germany then focused on further eastern expansion, invading the Soviet Union in 1941. Germany also advanced into Yugoslavia and Greece in 1941
*What expectations about the postwar world were expressed in the Atlantic Charter?
- the pledges made in the charter
- the circumstances that would allow those pledges to be fulfilled
*The Atlantic Charter contained pledges of collective security, disarmament, self-determination, economic cooperation, and freedom of the seas. These points indicate the following assumptions and expectations: The Allies would win the war. Nazism, fascism, and totalitarianism would be defeated. Territory would change hands only as a result of the inhabitants' wishes. Governments would reflect their citizens' wishes. Nations would conduct free trade and would cooperate in other matters. Aggressor nations would be disarmed. A system would be established to ensure and defend a secure peace based on freedom from want and fear
In what year did Germany invade the Soviet Union?
On what did the German military strategy of blitzkrieg depend?
surprise and overwhelming force
The actions of which country finally forced the United States to enter the war?
According to the map, which of the following countries was among the neutral nations?
When did Britain and France adopt a policy of appeasement toward Germany?
before the war began
What is genocide, as practiced by the Nazis?
the deliberate extermination of a specific group of people
forced Japan to become China's ally
*What overall trends in defense expenditures does the chart indicate?
*Defense expenditures remained fairly steady between 1930 and 1940, sharply increased between 1940 and 1945, and then sharply decreased between 1945 and 1950
*Summarize the information shown in the graph of unemployment rates.
*Unemployment rates grew sharply in the early 1930s, peaking in 1933. Then they decreased sharply through 1944, with only one increase occurring in 1938. After 1944, unemployment rates began to rise again, but gradually
Locate the Maginot Line on the map. What was the intended purpose of the Maginot Line?
to protect France from German invasion
Which of the following correctly matches the politician with his nation?
Spain -- Francisco Franco
*What forced Franklin D. Roosevelt to wait until the bombing of Pearl Harbor before entering the war?
- American citizens' feelings about the war
- which branch of government has the power to declare war
- the location of the war
*The general mood of isolationism among Americans forced Roosevelt to follow a foreign policy based on neutrality. Isolationist forces in Congress were very strong. Roosevelt could not have entered the war without a declaration of war by Congress. There was no direct threat to the United States until Japan attacked Pearl Harbor; before that time, all the fighting took place in Europe, Africa, and Asia, far from the United States
What happened to the U.S. unemployment rate from 1938 to 1944? What actions of President Roosevelt's might have caused this change to take place?
The unemployment rate decreased. Roosevelt's Lend-Lease Act and his engagement of the United States in the war both contributed to the decrease
According to the map, who controlled the Soviet Union during this period?
both the Allies and the Axis powers
Which nation(s) signed a nonaggression pact with Germany that led to the invasion and division of Poland?
the Soviet Union
*What economic event was taking place when unemployment rates were at their highest? What event was able to reverse this trend?
*The Great Depression was taking place when unemployment was highest. Only the war and the production it required could reverse this trend
*Using the map, explain why the Maginot Line was not successful in defending France from German invasion.
*The Maginot Line was unsuccessful because Germany invaded France north of the Maginot Line. Germany first invaded Belgium and then entered France through that country
Which of the following matches a nation with another nation that it invaded in the 1930s?
Soviet Union invaded Poland
Approximately how many percentage points did unemployment increase from 1930 to 1933?
In following a policy of appeasement, what did Britain and France do?
submitted to Hitler's demands
What caused militarist leaders to gain control of the Japanese government in the early 1930s?
their successful invasion of resource-rich Manchuria
From which direction(s) did Germany attack Leningrad?
north and south
Which of the following countries was an Axis power?
*What did the United States do-while remaining officially neutral-to guide the course of the war?
*To help Britain and France defeat Germany, Congress passed the Neutrality Act of 1939, which permitted Americans to sell arms to nations at war as long as the nations paid cash. To get needed goods and arms to a nearly cashless Britain, Congress passed the Lend-Lease Act, which allowed the president to lend or lease arms and other supplies to "any country whose defense was vital to the United States." When Japan took over French military bases in Indochina, the United States placed a trade embargo on Japan. When German submarines began to take a toll on British shipping, the United States authorized the use of naval warships to protect lend-lease shipments. Roosevelt and Churchill met secretly and agreed on the Atlantic Charter, a set of principles for fighting the war. The United States took action to ensure that it would be prepared to fight in the war if necessary. Congress passed a peacetime draft and increased defense spending
*Describe the transformation of the Soviet Union under Joseph Stalin. Discuss the impact on the country's citizens and the economy through the restructuring of society.
- the economic position of the Soviet Union before Stalin took control
- Stalin's "model communist state"
- Stalin's totalitarian regime
*When Stalin took control of the newly established communist state, the Soviet Union was seen as a rural nation. Stalin tried to turn the nation into a great industrial power by focusing on the economic goals of agriculture and industry. He abolished all privately owned farms and replaced them with collectives. All economic activity was under state management. Within thirteen years, the Soviet Union became the world's second largest industrial power. To become such a power, Stalin sacrificed millions of human lives-he killed anyone who posed a threat to his power, and many others died in famines that occurred during the restructuring of government. Citizens under Stalin's totalitarian regime had no rights, and all opposition was suppressed
Between which of the following years did defense expenditures decrease the most?
1945 and 1946
When did the unemployment rate reach its lowest?
Which of the following did Adolf Hitler oppose?
the Treaty of Versailles
*"By 1941, Germany had overextended itself and become vulnerable to Allied counterattacks." Defend this statement, using details from the map.
*In 1941, Germany controlled most of Europe. By taking over so much territory so quickly, however, Germany did not give itself time to establish firm control over the countries it occupied. Also, its blitzkrieg strategy created a two-front war for Germany
supported government ownership of property
*In the 1920s and 1930s, how did the United States respond to acts of aggression in Europe and Asia. Why?
*In general, the United States did little in response to acts of aggression in Europe and Asia because Americans did not want to be pulled into another European war. The general mood of isolationism forced Roosevelt to follow a foreign policy based on neutrality. Congress passed a series of Neutrality Acts to keep the United States out of war. Based on the popular view that arms merchants and big business had brought the United States into World War I, these acts outlawed arms sales and loans to nations at war. Small groups of Americans responded to particular acts of aggression(such as the invasion of Ethiopia and the Spanish civil war)with outrage, providing aid to victims of those acts
*Between 1940 and 1944 how are the two sets of data in the graph related?
*As defense expenditures increased, the unemployment rate decreased
Congress boosted defense spending and created the first peacetime ___ in U.S. history.
Japan launched a surprise attack on the naval base at ___.
Germany, Italy, and Japan were called the ___ powers.
Germany invaded ___ in spite of the peace treaty signed between the two nations just prior to the invasion of Poland.
the Soviet Union
Churchill and Roosevelt met secretly aboard the U.S.S. Augusta. Together, they drafted the ___.
After promising his emperor that he would try to maintain peace, Japanese Prime Minister ___ ordered the Japanese navy to prepare for attack on the United States.
The ___ passed, allowing the president to lend or lease arms and other supplies to "any country whose defense was vital to the United States."
Japan took over French military bases in Indochina. In response, the United States placed a(n) ___ on Japan.
In what year was that lowest percentage reached?
*What was the situation in Europe at the time that the Battle of Britain was fought? Why was the outcome of the Battle of Britain so important?
*Much of Europe had fallen to German, and Soviet aggression. France, Britain's chief ally, had surrendered to Germany. The British army had been forced to retreat from the continent. The outcome of the battle was crucial because Britain was the last powerful nation in Europe fighting against Germany. Britain's victory led Hitler to call off the invasion of Britain indefinitely
What general statement can be made about defense spending after 1945?
Defense spending decreased.
Who or what did President Roosevelt describe as "the rattlesnakes of the Atlantic"?
German U-boats and their crews
*Was it the right for the United States to refuse to declare war when France and Britain declared war? At that point, was the war any less America's responsibility than it was Britain's or France's? Support your opinions.
- the military preparedness of each country
- the moral obligation to the people harmed by the Axis powers
- the geographic location of each country
*Students who feel that the United States was right might say that after years of isolationism the U.S. military wasn't prepared to fight a war; the American people at that time were clinging to isolationism and wanted to remain neutral; the war was considered a European matter; and the Axis powers had not attacked the United States.
Students who feel that the United States was wrong might say that the United States had a moral responsibility to fight the spread of Nazism and fascism; the United States was obligated to defend its long-time traditional allies, Britain and France, against the totalitarian regimes that were brutalizing the forces of democracy; Hitler's actions clearly showed that he would never stop unless forced
At the end of World War I, many new democracies were established in Europe. In the years between the two world wars, what happened to most of these democracies?
They were replaced by dictatorships.
Which of the following did Winston Churchill oppose?
the Munich Pact
In what year did the unemployment rate reach its peak?
What happened during the Battle of Britain?
Germany bombed Britain for two months.
*Outline Japanese involvement and aims in World War II. Explain how the United States became a target for Japan.
- the goals of the Japanese government
- the actions and reactions of the United States in relation to Japan
*Japan's main goal in the war was to expand, namely into Asia. After taking Manchuria, Japan aimed at gaining more lands and resources, many of which were under colonial control. In protest of Japan's attacks on French military bases in Indochina, the United States cut off trade with Japan, placing an embargo on oil, a necessary resource for Japan's war effort. In response to the oil embargo, Japan planned to bomb the United States, while peace negotiations continued unsuccessfully. Japan finally attacked Pearl Harbor and drew the United States into the war
How were Britain and France drawn into war with Germany?
Germany had attacked Poland.
On which of the following did Joseph Stalin and Benito Mussolini disagree?
ownership of property
Country that began the war in an alliance with Germany but ended the war fighting against Germany
An issue on which Joseph Stalin and Adolf Hitler did not agree
Leader who disapproved of the policy of appeasement
Leader whose totalitarian regime was based on a communist philosophy
Leader whose political philosophy was based on both nationalism and racism
Leader of the fascist government in Italy
Country that was split between Germany and the Soviet Union near the beginning of the war
Policy carried out by Germany using a strategy called blitzkrieg
Country that, with England, declared war on Germany after the German invasion of Poland
Leader who made concessions to Hitler in hopes of ending German aggression
Which countries did Germany attack in 1938?
Czechoslovakia and Austria
*Explain the Nazis' "final solution to the Jewish question" and how they justified this policy.
- the beliefs held by Nazis
- the feelings of many Germans after World War I
- what happened to Jews in concentration camps
*The Nazis' "final solution" was to exterminate the Jews. They justified this policy by arguing that so-called Aryans were superior to Jews and that inferior groups threatened the strength and purity of the "master race." Nazis also justified their anti-Semitism by arguing that Jews and other minority groups were the cause of Germany's problems after World War I
*What is the purpose of this map? What kind of information does it present?
*The purpose of the map is to show the extent of German control of Europe by 1941 and to illustrate the military actions that led to this control
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