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26 terms

Anthropology 1

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Anthropology
the study of humanity, including prehistoric origins and contemporary human diversity
biological anthropology
the study of humans as biological organisms, including evolution and contemporary variation
archeology
the study of past human cultures through their material remains
linguistic anthropology
the study of human communication, including its origins, history, and contemporary variation and change
cultural anthropology
the study of living people and their cultures, including variation and change
culture
people's learned and shared behaviors and beliefs
applied anthropology
the use of anthropological knowledge to prevent or solve problems or to shape and achieve policy goals
functionalism
the theory that a culture is similar to a biological organism, in which parts work to support the operation and maintenance of the whole
holism
the perspective in anthropology that cultures are complex systems that cannot be be fully understood without paying attention to their different components, including economics, social organization, and ideology
cultural relativism
the perspective that each culture just be understood in terms of the values and ideas of that culture and should not be judged by the standards of another
cultural materialism
a theoretical position that takes material features of life, such as the environment, natural resources, and mode of production, as the bases for explaining social organization and ideology
interpretive anthropology
the view that cultures can be understood by studying what people think about, their ideas, and the meaning that are important to them
structurism
a theoretical position concerning human behavior and ideas that says large forces such as the economy, social and political organization, and the media shape what people do and think
agency
the ability of humans to make choices and exercise free will within dominating structures
microculture
a distinct pattern of learned and shared behavior and thinking found within a larger culture
symbol
an object, word, or action with culturally defined meaning that stands for something else; most symbols are arbitrary
globalization
increased and intensified international ties related to the spread of Western, especially US, capitalism that affects all world cultures
localization
the transformation of global culture by local cultures into something new
class
a way of categorizing people on the basis of their economic position in society, usually measured in terms of income or wealth
race
a classification of people into groups based on supposedly homogeneous and largely superficial biological traits (hair, skin color)
ethnicity
a shared sense of identity among a group based on a heritage, language, or culture
indigenous people
groups who have a long-standing connection with their home territory that predates colonial or outside societies that prevail in that territory
gender
culturally constructed and learned behaviors and ideas attributed to males, females, or blended genders
ethnocentrism
judging other cultures by the standards of one's own culture rather than by the standards of that particular culture
biological determinism
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by biological features such as genes and hormones
cultural constructionism
a theory that explains human behavior and ideas mainly as shaped by learning