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23 terms

Anatomy and Physiology Male Reproductive Ch. 27

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sex cell
gametes; 1 male and 1 female= zygote
primary sex organs
testis, ovaries
diploid
46 chromosomes and is called a zygote
haploid
23 chromosomes and is the gamete
mesonephric (wolffian)
the duct in the embryo that forms the male gonads
paramesonephric (mullerian)
the duct in the embryo that forms the female gonads; the result of femal gonads growing is from the absence of androgens and not the presence of estrogen
genital tubercle
in male embryo forms the head of the penis; in female it forms the clitoris
urogenital folds
in male embryo forms the urethra and paraneal raphe; in the female it produces the labia minora
labialscrotal folds
in male it forms the scrotum; in females it form the labia majora
testicular artery
carries blood to the testes
countercurrent exchange system in testes
sperm do not produce in 37 degrees, so the cremaster and dartos muscle contract and descend to help with temperature; the warm blood from the artery diffuses to vein and makes the blood cooler for the testes
testis
covered by tunica albingea, contains seminiferous tubules where sperm is produced and is lined with germinal epithelium, which consist of germ cells that become to be sperm consist and sertoli cells, which protect germ cells and promote development; aslo has leydig cells which are responsible for testosterone production
blood-testis barrier
protects body from immune reaction because sperm are not genetically identical
semen
mixed with sperm in ejaculation that protects and nourishes sperm; contains carbs acid neutralizing bases
seminal vesicles
gland that has nourishing secretions
prostate gland
secretes to protect sperm
bulbourethral glands
gland that lubricates penial urethra prior to ejaculation
puberty
hypothalamus secrete GnRH to the anterior pituitary and tells it to secretes FSH and LH; FSH goes to sertoli cells adn they secrete androgen binding protien, while LH goes to leydig cells and they secrete testoterone; the ABP makes the testosterone stimulate spermatogenesis; as a negative feedback testosterone inhibits gonadotropins going to pituitary gland
mitosis
1 parent cell divideds into 2 genetically identical daughter cells
meiosis 1
results in 2 double stranded haploid cells
meiosis 2
results in 4 haploid daughter cells with single stranded chromosomes
spermatogenesis
the production of sperm; starts with stem cell called spermatogonia, these cell divide by mitosis into 2 daughter cells, type A remains near the wall and serve as a lifetime supply of stem cells, type B enlarges and becomes primary spermatocytes, these cells need protection because they are genetically different from the body, the BTB comes along behind it and closes in on it, spermatocytes goes under meiosis 1 and turns into secondary spermatocytes, then it goes under meiosis 2 and turns into 4 haploid cells called spermatids
spermatozoon tail
midpiece- has mitochondria around axoneme of flagellum , these produce ATP; principal piece- axoneme surrounded by fibers; endpiece is very narrow tip of flagellum