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70 terms

Ch. 27-29 Study Guide

Covers the reproductive system, pregnancy and human development, and heredity
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Seminiferous tubules
Where in the testes is sperm produced?
epididymus
Where sperm mature and gain motility
Interstitial cells
Which cells in the testes make testosterone?
Sustentocular cells; to prevent the immune system from attacking the sperm
Which cells make up the blood-testes barrier and why
where sperm mature and gain motility
What the epiydidmus is and its function
skeletal muscle and elevates the testes; smooth muscle and wrinkles the scrotal skill
What the cremaster and dartos muscle do
end of sperm, secretes enzymes to penetrate egg
Where the acrosome is and its function
capacitation
What the changes the sperm undergo before fertilization are
60% of sperm volume, protect sperm and provide nutrients
What the seminal vesicle produces
25-30% of semen, produces a milky substance
What the prostate produces
10% of semen volume (1/3) produce thick, clear mucus prior to ejaculation that neutralizes traces of acidic urine in the urethra
What the bulbourethral gland produces
the tip of the penis
What the glans penis is
keeps spongy urethra open during ejaculation
What the corpus spongiosum is and its function
main body of erectile tissue, for erection
What the corpora cavernosa are and their function
spermatogenesis
What the production of sperm is called
cell division to produce sperm and egg, haploid gametes
What meiosis is
haploid gametes; 2 consecutive divisions
What meiosis produces and how
meiosis I; meiosis II
What haploid and diploid are
crossing over
What occurs in prophase I
homonymous chromosomes line up
What occurs in prophase II
sister chromatids line up at mid-line
What occurs in metaphase II
homonymous chromosomes separate; sister chromatids separate
What occurs in anaphase I and anaphase II
genetic diversity and genetic recombination
What crossing over is and its purpose
small structure that has 23 chromosomes, nonfunctional
What a polar body is
metaphase II
What stage of meiosis the secondary oocyte stops in
after fertilization
When meiosis is completed in the secondary oocyte
formed by the duct of seminal vesicle and ampulla of ductus deferens; semen goes in
What the ejaculatory duct is and how it is formed
erectile tissue; sensory
What the clitoris is made of and its function
inner mucosa of uterine wall of inner lining; muscle layer of uterine
What the endometrium and myometrium are
supports, nourishes, and protects the developing fetus
What the placenta is
embryonic trophoblastic tissue and maternal endometrial tissue
What two structures contribute to the placenta formation
6-7 days after fertilization
When implantation occurs
deeper layer of the endometrium
What the stratum basalis is
upper layer of endometrium, one that sheds
What the stratum functionalis is
stratum basalis; stratum functionalis
Where the straight artery and spiral artery are in the uterus
right and left internal iliac arteries
Where the uterine artery arises from
4 cell division after zygote
What the cleavage stage is
16 or more cells after cleavage, solid mass
What a morula is
3-8 weeks; 9 weeks to birth
What an embryo and fetus are
anchors uterus to body (pelvic) wall; connects ovary to uterus
What the broad ligament and ovarian ligament are
three #21 chromosome ; age of mother (35+)
What Down's syndrome is and the major risk factor is
failure to separate chromosome or chormatids
What nondisjunction is
some antibodies, nutrients, enzymes, drugs, toxins, bacteria, alcohol
What substances can cross the placenta
umbilical veins
How substances are carried back to the fetus
do not directly mix, transport by active transport, diffusion
How the maternal and fetal circulation relate
foramen ovalae, ductus arteriosus, duct venosus
How blood in shunted in the fetus
oogenesis
What egg production is called
one egg and up to 3 polar bodies
What is produced during egg production
formation of the organs, 8th week
When organogenesis is copleted
tapered inferior neck of the uterus
What the cervix is
fibrous cord that guides the descent of the testes
What gubernaculum is
network of veins, cools arterial blood entering testes
What the pampiniform plexus is and its functions
protection and buoyancy; produced amniotic fliud
What amnion produces and why
1/3 less fat, produced 2-3 days before breast-milk
What colustrum is
failure of the testes to descend
What crytochidism is
the ability to produce surfactant
What premature infants often lack
distal portion of the uterine tube
Where fertilization occurs
surrounding structure around the egg-what the sperm has to penetrate
What the corona radiata is
fluid filled development of pre-embryo stage
What a blastocyst is
portion of blastocyte, contributes to placenta formation
What the trophoblast is
remenate of mature follicle; makes female hormones, progesterone and estrogen
What the corpus luteum is and its function
when the head is visible
What crowning is
uterus raises to a more vertical position during plateau stage
What tenting of the uterus is and when it occurs
excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
What the order of the sexual response is
semitubules, rete tetis, efferent ductules, epididymus, ductus deferens, ampulla, ejaculatory duct, urethra
What the order of travel of sperm is
ovary, pelvic cavity, fimbriae of uterine tube, uterine tube
What the order of travel of the egg is
ejection of mature egg from ovary
What ovulation is
1/2 hour; none
What the refractory periods are in males and females
anchors ovary to the pelvic wall laterally; anchors uterus to body (pelvic) wall; connects ovary to uterus
What the broad, ovarian, and suspensory ligaments are
sperm and egg production; testosterone and estrogen
What FSH and LH stimulate production of in males; in females