Mitosis and Meiosis
Terms in this set (35)
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
1st stage of interphase in which cell grows and performs its normal functions
2nd stage of interphase during which DNA is replicated.
3rd stage of interphase when cell prepares for mitosis. Organelles necessary for cell division are made (centrioles and spindle fibers)
Three reasons for Mitosis
Growth, Maintenance and Repair
Two reasons why large cells struggle? (Why cells are small)
1) Demand on DNA and nucleus is too large
2) Moving materials in and out of the cell (cell transport) is difficult
Produces genetically IDENTICAL offspring from a SINGLE parent
Produces genetically DIFFERENT offspring which inherit genetic information from TWO parents
A haploid cell such as an egg or sperm. Gametes unite during sexual reproduction to produce a diploid zygote.
Any cell in a multicellular organism except a sperm or egg cell.
Single, circular DNA molecule found in the cytoplasm
Multiple, linear DNA molecules found in the nucleus
A threadlike structure found in the nucleus containing genetic information. Each chromosome consists of one very long DNA molecule and associated proteins.
The relaxed uncoiled state of a chromosome.
One of two identical "sister" parts of a duplicated chromosome
Region of a chromosome where the two sister chromatids attach. Site of spindle fiber attachment.
The total number of chromosomes in a somatic cell. Two of each type of chromosome.
Half the number of chromosomes of an organism found in gametes (sex cells). One of each type of chromosome.
Three types of Cell Division
1) Binary Fission
A form of asexual reproduction in which one cell divides to form two identical cells. Prokaryotic cells.
Eukaryotic cell cycle
Interphase (g1, s phase, g2 phase) and then Mitotic phase (mitosis, cytokinesis)
Period of time where a cell carries on normal functions and DUPLICATES CHROMOSOMES prior to cell division. (G1, S and G2)
Stage of interphase in which CELL GROWS and performs its normal functions
Stage of interphase in which DNA DUPLICATES
Stage of interphase in which cell prepares for division
A nuclear division resulting in the production of two somatic cells having identical genetic material as the original cell.
First phase of mitosis in which duplicated chromosomes condense and mitotic spindle fibers begin to form
Second phase of mitosis in which the chromosomes line up across the equator of the cell
Third phase of mitosis in which the chromatids of each chromosome separate at the centromere and move in opposite directions.
"Final" phase of mitosis during which chromosomes uncoil, a nuclear envelope returns around the chromatin, and a nucleolus becomes visible in each daughter cell
Division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells
A type of cell division that results in four daughter cells each with half the number of chromosomes of the parent cell, as in the production of gametes.
First stage of meiosis I, where tetrads (a set of two tightly bound chromosomes) are formed and may cross over
A paired set of homologous chromosomes, each composed of two sister chromatids. Tetrads form during prophase I of meiosis.
The second phase of meiosis I. During metaphase I the paired homologous chromosomes (tetrads) align at the center of the cell (the metaphase plate).