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total power to state, dictatorship thru political party, no first amendment rights

tools of totalitarianism

propaganda thru new technology and mass communication, censorship, indoctrination


teaching someone to accept an idea or principle without question


a political system headed by a dictator that calls for extreme nationalism and racism and no tolerance of opposition


fascist leader of Italy in 1919, got support from promising to suppress strikes and communism.

march on rome

King Victor Emmanuel III makes Mussolini prime minister


totalitarianism politician, proposed 5 year plan, collectivization of agriculture, "liquidated" kulaks

5 year plans

rapid transformation from ag to industrial nation, focus on heavy industry, lowered wages, bad for kulaks

great Terror

Stalin's dictatorship becomes reign of terror, purges all enemies (real and imagined)

How Hitler rises to power

fought WWI; joined German Workers Party; sent to jail and wrote Mein Kampf; germ was in econ depression and he spoke of greatness; enabling law

Mein Kampf

=my struggle; spells out Nazi doctrine

Main ideas of Mein Kampf

Germ should be ruled by single party with a leader; they should rearm and address injustices of versailles; conquer slavic people to gain land; Arayan race; condemned jews


living space; all the land they would gain from taking over the Slavic people

Why people supported Hitler

Germ was in an economic depression; he spoke of greatness form humiliation; blamed jews for everything; good public speaker

Reichstag Fire

justified getting rid of communists

The enabling law of 1933

allowed Hitler to pass any law he wants

Nueremberg laws

Anyone with 3-4 Jewish grandparents is jewish

Causes of WWII

Treaty of versailles; hitler's foreign policy goals

treaty of versailles

angered and humiliated Germ; didn't significantly shrink germ; League of nations had no power controlling totalitarian regimes

Hitler's foreign policy goals

create an empire; kill inferior races

policy of Appeasement

settling international disputes by settling grievances thru negotiation and compromise; based on belief that the unhappy nation would then be happy and peaceful; policy of Prime Minister Neville Chamverlain

Path to war

annexation of austria; munich conference; march into prague taking over the czechs; invasion of poland

Nazi-Soviet non aggression pact

Soviet union gets east poland and balkans

Hitler invades Poland

1939 makes England and France declare war

Major Players of WWII

Allies: GB, US, Russia, France
Axis Powers: Italy, Germany, Japan

Reich Citizenship Law

Jewish people are "subjects" not citizens and have no rights

Nazi Anti-semetic Legislation 1938

identification laws to make names more Jewish; carry ID cards and passport stamped with a "J"; jewish children banned from state-run schools

Cold War

global standoff; starts the arms race; no direct fighting

Reasons for Cold War

different ideologies; capitalism vs communism; democracy vs dictatorship; freedom vs state controls

iron curtain

symbolic boundary deciding Europe into 2 camps

Satellite States

Soviets, Poland, bulgaria, hungary, romania, czech; followed stalin's policies

post war US goals

promote democracy; gain acces to raw materials; rebuild European gvts

post war USSR goals

spread gvt; control Eastern Europe as a buffer to counter power of US; keep Germ divided and weak

Truman doctrine

$400 mil to Greece and Turks

Marshall Plan

economic recovery program; USSR called it economic imperialism

Berlin Blockade

Germany divided into 4 sections to be ruled by GB, US, French, Russia; berlin also divided; Stalin was unhappy


north atlantic treaty organization

Three pillars

economic unity; common and foreign security policy; police and judicial cooperation in criminal matters

Four freedoms of European Union

free movement of: goods, capital, services, persons

Reform in Soviet Union

Gorbachev rises to power and wants to reform communism

Gorbachev's reforms

arms limitation; allowed greater autonomy for satellite states; not sending in troops


restructuring; local decision making; starting to move toward a market economy


openness; permit of open discussion of problems; chernobyl disaster

chernobyl disaster

1986 Nuclear powerplant accident


resistance union that became a political party in Poland

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