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Must Know Vitamin

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Which Vitamin is important for visual pigments and specialized epithelial declls?
Vitamin A- found in leafy green vegetables
Which Vitamin is used to treat measles
Vitamin A
Which Vitamin deficiency can cause night blindness, dry skin, and possibly squamous metaplasia?
Vitamin A
What vitamin excess causes headaches, sore throat, fatigue, skin changes, and arthralgias?
Vitamin A
What vitamin is an important co-factor for enzymes in glycolysis, TCA, HMP, and branched-chain AA dehydrogenase as TPP?

Does Transketolases
Thiamine- Vitamin B1
What vitamin deficiency impairs glucose breakdown leading to ATP depletion so that a glucose infusion can make it worse?
Thiamine- B1
What vitamin disorder causes polyneuritis, and symmetrical muscle wasting?
Thiamine- B1- Dry Beri Beri
Which vitamin deficiency causes high output cardiac failure from dilated cardiomyopathy and edema?
Thiamine-B1- Wet Beri Beri
What vitamin deficiency causes confusion, opthalmoplegia, ataxia as well as confabulation, personality change, memory loss? Where is the damage?
Thiamine-B1- Wernicke-Korsakof- damage to Medial Dorsal Nucleus of thalamus and mamillary bodies
What vitamin is an important cofactor in oxidation and reduction as FADH2?
Vitamin B2- Riboflavin
FAD, FMN

2ATPs
What vitamin deficiency causes cheilosis (inflammation of lips, scaling and fissures and corners of the mouth, and corneal vascularization?
Vitamin B2- Riboflavin
What vitamin is derived from tryptophan? What other vitamin is required for its synthesis?

What diseases affect this?
Vitamin B3- Niacin

Needs B6

1) Hartnup disease (decreased tryptophan absorption)

2) Malignant carcinoid syndrome (increased tryptophan metabolism to synthesize seratonin)

3) Ingestion of INH (decreases B6)
What vitamin is important in Redox reactions and is a constituent of NAD+ and NADP+?
Vitamin B3- Niacin
What vitamin deficiency causes glossitis and diarrhea, dermatitis, and dementia?
Vitamin B3- Niacin

Pellagra- "3Ds"- Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
What vitamin excess can cause facial flushing?
Vitamin B3- Niacin, used in treatment of hyperlipidemia (Increases HDL)
What vitamin is essential component of CoA (acyl transfers) and fatty acid synthase?
Vitamin B5- Pantothenate
What vitamin deficiency causes dermatitis, enteritis, alopecia, and adrenal insufficiency.
Vitamin B5- Pantothenate
What vitamin is an important co-factor in transamination (ALT/AST), decarboxylation, glycogen phosphorylase, cystathione synthesis, and heme synthesis?
Vitamin B6- Pyridoxine
What important NT and biological complexes require B6?
Dopa-->Dopamine
Histadine-->Histamine
Glycine-->Porphyrin-->Heme
Glutamate-->GABA
What vitamin deficiency causes convulsions, hyperirritability, peripheral neuropathy, and sideroblastic anemias?
Vitamin B6
Seizures- decreased GABA
Neuro sympotoms- decreased NE, Epi, Dopamine, and Seratonin (indirectly because B6 needed to make B3)
Anemia- from decrease in heme synthesis
INH and other drugs can cause it
Which vitamin is a cofactor for homocysteine methyltransferase (transfers CH3 groups) to make Methionine and THF and methymalonyl-CoA mutase (Succinyl CoA in odd chain FA synthesis)
Vitamin B12- Cobalamin
Which vitamin deficiency causes megaloblastic anemia, hypersegmented neutrophils and neurological symptoms due to abnormal myelin?
Vitamin B12- Cobalamin
What test is used to detect cause of B12 deficieny?
Schilling test
Part 1: Oral labeled B12 and intramuscular B12- look for urine to see if it is absorbed.

Part 2: Test repeated with oral labeled B12 + IF- look for radiolabeled urine. If yes, pernicious anemia

can also be given with antibiotics (bacterial overgrowth problems absorbing in terminal ileum) or pancreatic enzymes (can't dissociate R-B12 in duodenum).
What can diseases can B12 deficiency?
Malabsorption (sprue, enteritis), Diphyllobothrium latum worm, lack of IF from pernicious anemia or gastric bypass, or absence of terminal ileum (chron's disease)
What vitamin is converted into THF used for 1 carbon transfer/methylation reactions?
Folic Acid- small reserve pool stored in liver

Comes from green veggies
What vitamin deficiency can cause megaloblastic anemia, no neurological symptoms and is often seen in alcoholism and pregnancy?
Folic acid- small reserve pool
What vitamin is especially important for synthesis of Purines and DNA/RNA?
Folic acid
What important molecule transfers methyl groups and requires Vitamin B12 and Folate
S-adenosyl-methionine
ATP+ methionine==> SAM

Required to make Epinephrine from NE
What is an important cofactor for carboxylation enzymes?

What reactions specifically?
Biotin-
1) Pyruvate carboxylase: Pyruvate--> Oxaloacetate (4C) in TCA

2) Acetyl-CoA carboxylase: Acetyl-CoA (2C)-->malonylCoA (3C) in Fatty Acid synthesis

3) Propionyl-CoA carboxylase: Propionyl-CoA (3C)-->MethymalonylCoA (4C)
What vitamin is involved in absorbing iron, hydroxylation of proline and lysine in collagen synthesis, and necessary for dopamine Beta-hydroxylase (Dopamine to NE)
Vitamin C
What vitamin deficiency causes swollen cums, bruising, hemarthrosis, anemia, and poor wound healing as well as a weakened immune system?
Vitamin C (ascorbic acid)
What vitamin is important for intestinal absorption of calcium and phosphate in the jejunum. How is the active form made?
Vitamin D

D2/D3 ingested or formed from sun from cholesterol

1) Liver hydroxylation to 25-OH-D3 (also storage form)

2) Kidney hydroxylation to 1, 25- OH-D3 (calcitriol) active form
What is Ergocalciferol, where is it found? Cholecalciferol?
Ergocalciferol- D2- from plants
Cholecalciferol- milk or can be formed from conversion of 7-dehydrocholesterol by UV light
What vitamin deficiency causes soft bones in adults and bending bonds in children, and tetany. Causes?
Vitamin D- dark skinned people and less vitamin D in breast milk
What vitamin excess causes loss of appetitie, stupor, hypercalciuria and stones.
Vitamin D- excess can occur in sarcoidosis from an increased activation of Vitamin D by epithelioid macrophages with 1-alpha-hydroxylase
What vitamin protects erthrocytes and meembranes from free radical damage?
Vitamin E
What vitamin deficiency can caused hemolytic anemia, muscle weakness, and posterior column and spinocerebellar tract demylination that looks like friedrich's ataxia?
Vitamin E- also antioxidant that can neutrolize oxidized LDL and protect from Phospholipase A.
What vitamin toxicity can inhibit synthesis of Vitamin K-dependent coagulation factors
Vitamin E >1100 units
What vitamin catalyzes gamma-carboxylation of glutamic acid residues? Where is this made?
Vitamin K- gamma-carboxylation important for clotting factors.

Synthesized by intestinal flora
What clotting factors depend on Vitamin K?
2, 7, 9, and 10

also C and S
What vitamin deficiency can cause neonatal hemorrhage with increased PT and aPTT but normal bleeding time?
Vitamin K- supplement in neonates. Can also occur with broad-spectrum antibiotics
What metal is important for the activity of over 100 enzymes and is important in transcription factors?
Zinc- component of Zing fingers (transcription motif)
What Vitamin deficiency causes delayed wound healing, hypogonadism, and a decrease in adult hair and anosmia.
Zinc-
What nutritional deficiency causes skin lesions, edema, liver malfunction (fatty change from decreased apoliporproteins). Small child with swollen belly.
Protein malnutrition- Kwashiorkor
What nutritional deficiency causes tissue and muscle wasting, loss of subcutaneous fat and edema
Energy malnutrition- Marasmus