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among the psychoactive drugs, alcohol is classified as a


after oral administration most absorption of the drug molecules take place in the

small intestine

the process of maintaining our internal evironment within certain limits is called


weight control, aggression, impulsivity, and psychological depression have all been associated with

serotonin pathways

which of these is given its own classification category due to its complex effects at diff doses


in some cases repeated use of a drug leads to pharmacodynamic tolerance which is based on

reduced sensitivity of neurons

natural chemicals in the brain that produce effects similar to those of morphine and other opium derived drugs are called


drugs can affect neurotransmitters systems in 2 main ways: either by altering the availability of the neurotransmitter in the synapse or by

acting directly on the receptors

specialized structures that recognize neurotransmitter molecules and when activated cause a change in the electrical activity of the neuron are called


parasympathetic and sympathetic refer to the 2 branches of the

autonomic nervous system

neurotransmitter molecules are released into the small space between two neurons called the


psychoactive drugs reach the brain tissue by the way of


the neurotransmitter at the end organ of the sympathetic branch of the autonomic nervous system is


cocaine selectively blocks Na+ (sodium) channels which is the mechanism that leads to

local anesthetic effects

neural centers controlling vomiting and respiration are found in the

brain stem

gated ion channels for sodium and potassium open and close in rapid succession causing the neuron to depolarize and then repolarze during each

action potential

drug molecules must be somewhat lipophilic (soluble in oil) in order to

readily cross the blood brain barrier

the potency of a drug is defined only in terms of

the amount required to produce an effect

nonspecific effects of taking a drug are those that do not depend on its chemical activity they are also referred to as

placebo effects

which of the following neurotransmitters is found in most parts of the brain and is considered inhibitory


when use of a drug interferes with normal behavior experienced users may learn to compensate and show less impairment than new users. this is an example of

behavioral tolerance

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