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Children and their Development Test 1
Terms in this set (151)
Study of behavioral and mental processes
Change over time
A research design in which investigators look at relations between variables as they exist naturally in the world
Types of iterviews
structures and clinical
questions adjusted to answers
Limitations to interviews
Inaccuracy and Dishonesty
A method of observation in which children are observed as they behave spontaneously in a real- life situation
Limitations of naturalistic observation
No control of experimenter and observer bias
A method in which a researcher creates a setting to elicit the behavior of interest
Limitations of a structured observation
Determine whether and how variables are related
Limitations of correlation
correlation does not equal causation
systematically vary factors thought to cause a particular behavior such as: Cause and effect, experimental control, and random assignment
Limitations of experimental designs
External validity (cant translate to the real world), Behavior in a lab setting may differ
A variation of an experiment in which the impact of an independent variable is examined by groups that are created after the fact, not by random assignment, and are equated statistically
Limitations of a quasi-experiment
Without random assortment, casualty is more difficult
Influences change on dependent variable (manipulated)
What is being measured
A research design in which people of different ages are compared at the same point in time
Limitations of cross-sectional studies
no individual difference or patterns of change and cohort effects (changes in same age groups depending on time period) can not be applied later in time
A research design in which a single cohort is studied over multiple times of measurement
Limitations of longitudinal studies
Attrition (drop-out rate), repeated testing may influence behavior
Longitudinal sequential studies
Are hybrid studies with 2 or more groups being studied over a long period of time
Biological endowment; genes
Non-genetic; environmental factors
What theory is rejected when it comes to experience molding unique individuals?
Study of environmental factors that turn genes on and off
Language, executive function, complex thoughts
growing, eating, mating
Differential susceptibility hypothesis
Some individuals are more susceptible than others to both positive and negative environments
Active-Passive Child issue
The issue of whether children are simply at the mercy of the environment (passive child) or actively influence their own development through their own unique individual characteristics (active child)
Changes in gene frequencies over generations (variation,inheritance, and differential reproduction)
When children in a longitudinal study are observed over a period of several years, the developmental change may be specific to a generation of people
The "relatedness" of development: Are early aspects of development consistently relates to later aspects?
Time in development when a specific type of learning can take place before or after the critical period, the same learning is difficult or even impossible
Researcher manipulates independent variables in a natural setting so that the results are more likely to be representative of behavior in real-world settings
Tool that allows researchers to synthesize the results of many studies to estimate relations between variables
Consequences of behavior determine whether a behavior is repeated (Skinner)
Development is largely determined by how well people resolve conflicts they face at different ages (Freud)
Male reproductive cell
What is the "journey" of the sperm?
Female reproductive cell
When a mature egg is released from the ovary, pushed down fallopian tube and can be fertilized
How many eggs does a woman have throughout her lifespan?
1 million at birth
300,00 by puberty
How many oppurtunities does a women have to become impregnated?
Thread-like structures in the nucleus of the cell that contain genetic material
A group of nucleotide bases that provide a specific set of biochemical instructions
A persons hereditary makeup
Expression of genes
Individual differences caused by one gene (Ex. Blood type)
Individual difference caused by multiple genes (ex. intelligence)
The branch of genetics that deals with inheritance of behavioral and psychological traits
Familial studies of intelligence
Correlation between various IQ scores of different groups and environment
extent to which differences in any trait within a population can be attributed to inhertance
A measure of the extent to which heredity contributes to individual differences in a trait for a group of people
Genes and environment interplay
genes influence the kinds of environments to which a child is exposed to
The process of deliberately seeking environments compatible with one's genetic makeup
the first 22 pairs of chromosomes
fraternal twins; come from a single fertilized egg that splits in two
Continuous interplay between genes and multiple levels of the environment that drives development
A fatal disease characterized by progressive degeneration of the nervous system
When allele does not dominate another completely
Identical twins; come from a single fertilized egg that splits
Individuals with one dominant and one recessive allele. When these individuals are short of oxygen they suffer a temporary, relatively mild form of the disease
The many changes that turn a fertilized egg into a newborn human
What are the stages of prenatal development?
How long is the prenatal period?
The fertilized egg
When does the zygote develop?
1-2 weeks after conception
The fertilized egg 4 days after conception; consists of about 100 cells and resembles a hollow ball
A small cluster of cells near the center of the zygote that develops into the baby
The structure through which nutrients and wastes are exchanged between the mother and the developing child
Movement of newly formed cells
Cell specialization in structure and function
Selective death of certain cells
The name given to the developing baby after the zygote is completely embedded into the uterine wall
What are the 3 layers of the embryo?
Ectoderm, Mesoderm, and endoderm
The outer layer of the embryo which becomes the hair, outer layer of skin and the nervous system
The middle layer of the embryo which will become the muscles, bones and circulatory system
The inner layer of the embryo which becomes the lungs and the digestive system
areas near the head develop earlier than those farther from the head
growth starts at the center of the body and works its way out (most organs form during this period)
A structure containing veins and arteries that connect the developing child to the placenta
An inner sac in which the developing child will rest
Fluid in the amnion that cushions the embryo and maintains a constant temperature
Development and growth of physical structures begins; there is an increase in levels of behavior, sensory experience and learning
During what time is fetal development?
9 Weeks- birth
When does sensation begin for a fetus?
Becoming unresponsive to a stimulus that is presented repeatedly; simplest form of learning
An agent that causes abnormal prenatal development
What are some examples of teratogens?
Drugs, disease, environmental factors
The greater the exposure to a teratogen, the more likely that damage will occur and more likely for it to be severe
Fetal Alcohol Syndrome
A disorder affecting babies whose mothers consumed large amounts of alcohol while they were pregnant
What is the leading cause of developmental disabilities in the U.S?
Fetal Alcohol syndrome
Sudden Infant Death Syndrome
A disorder in which a healthy baby dies suddenly, for no apparent reason; typically occurs between 2 and 4 months
What happens during labor and delivery?
1. Cervix enlarges to 10 cm
2. Baby moves down to birth canal
3. Placenta is expelled
During labor, the appearance of the top of the babys head
A birth in which the feet or bottom are delivered before the head
What is the country with the highest infant mortality?
A measure to evaluate the newborn's condition based on breathing, heart rate, muscle tone, presence of reflexes, and skin tone
What is the Apgar assessment measuring?
1. Appearance (skin color)
2. Pulse (Heart rate)
3. Grimace (Reflex irritability)
4. Activity (Muscle tone)
5. Respiration (Breathing)
Very critical neuropeptide released during labor and breastfeeding that helps with birth, bonding and milk production
Auditory brain response
Hearing test that may be used as a diagnostic tool for identifying children with autism
A condition affecting10-15% of new mothers in which irritability continues for months and is often accompanied by feelings of low self-worth, disturbed sleep, poor appetite, and apathy
Age if viability
22-28 weeks; most systems function well enough that a fetus born at this time has a chance to survive.
A needle inserted through the mothers abdomen to obtain a sample of the amniotic fluid that surrounds the fetus
Chorionic villus sampling
A sample of tissue is obtained from the chorion (a part of the placenta) and analyzed
Flow of oxygen is disrupted and infants do not receive adequate oxygen
When mothers do not consume adequate amounts of folic acid, a disorder in which the embryo's neural tube does not close properly during the first month of pregnancy develops.
During 5th and 6th months ofter conception, the skin thickens and becomes covered with a thick greasy substance that protects the fetus during its long bath in amniotic fluid
Secular growth trends
Changes in physical development from one generation to the next
When is the growth hormone secreted?
What are the benefits of an infant who is breastfed?
-May prevent childhood diabetes
-Baby transitions to solids more easily
What are the benefits to a mother who breast feeds?
-Has a reduced risk for cancer
-Promotes weight loss
What are the leading killers world-wide?
What is the number one cause of death world-wide in children and adolescents?
Inadequate nutrition intake
Inadequate caloric intake (starve to death)
What percentage of all children are malnourished?
When do children typically begin to learn to crawl?
When do children typically begin to learn to walk?
The biological start of adolescence
-short life span
-low offspring survival
-minimal parental care
-high offspring survival
-high parental care
Parental investment theory
Pubertal timing in females influenced by father
High quality interactions between father and daughter
delay puberty (environment with high-quality males as potential long-term mates)
No interactions with father
speed up puberty (Fewer potential mates)
basic unit of the brain and nervous system; specializes in receiving and transmitting information
Production of neurons
Form connections with other neurons
Gradual loss of unused synapses, beginning in infancy and continuing into early adolescence
When does prunning begin to decline?
Where in the brain is synaptic prunning completed?
Brain regions associated with sensory and motor functions
Measures timing of brain activity
A technique for measuring brain activity that uses magnetic fields to track the flow of blood in the brain
Chemicals released by terminal buttons that carry information to nearby neurons
Changes in the brain from environmental influences that typically occur at specified points in development and for all children
Changes in the brain due to experiences that are not linked to specific ages and that vary across individuals and across cultures
Tubelike structure; sends information to other neurons
At the center of the neuron contains the basic biological machinery that keeps the neuron alive.
Surface of the brain that regulates many of the functions hat we think of as distinctly human
Links both hemispheres together
The receiving end of the neuron
Shortly before birth, the ends of cartilage structures that turn into bone
Where personality and the ability to make and carry out plans
A fatty sheath that allows it to transmit information more rapidly
Develops 3 weeks after conception; a group of cells that form a flat structure
The first spontaneous ejaculation of sperm-laden fluid
The onset of menstruation
Recommended textbook explanations
Psychology: Principles in Practice
Spencer A. Rathus
A Concise Introduction To Logic (Mindtap Course List)
Lori Watson, Patrick J. Hurley
Myers' Psychology for the AP Course
David G Myers
Myers' Psychology for AP
David G Myers
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