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Chapter 8: Earthquakes and Earth's Interior
Terms in this set (38)
Modified Mercalli Scale
An intensity scale that rates the amount of damage and shaking.
Moment Magnitude Scale
Measures the amount of energy released by an earthquake...
A moment magnitude scale studies....
Studies....the amount of displacement along fault at the area of surface break by examining the strength of broken rock.
Crust and uppermost mantle
What are the layers that make up the lithosphere?
1. Intensity + duration of vibrations
2. Nature of the material on which the structures are built
3. Design of the structure
What are the 3 factors used to calculate degree of damage to structures?
Crust and Mantle
The Moho Boundary separates what 2 layers of the Earth?
The continental crust is made up of what type of rock?
1. Studies of P and S Waves
2. Look at rock samples and lava rock samples
3. Meteorites (stony=mantle, metallic=core)
How do scientists obtain information of the interior of the Earth?
Fractures in Earth where movement has happened.
Location on the surface of Earth directly above the focus.
Slow, gradual movement of a fault.
Elastic Rebound Hypothesis
The theory that states that earthquakes are caused by the rapid release of "elastic" energy stored in rock.
P-Wave (Primary Waves)
Travel the fastest
Travel in solids, liquids, and gases
Have a push action
S-Wave (Secondary Waves)
Travel slower than P-Waves
Travel only in solids
Shake in rigid angles
Travel the slowest
Travel on the surface of the Earth
Shake in all directions
1. Seismic shaking- surface + body waves
What are the hazards of earthquakes?
The vibration of Earth produced by rapid release of energy.
The point inside the Earth where the Earthquake originally starts.
Energy that travels in all directions from the focus.
Focus (weakest point)
Where do rocks slip/have movement?
The rocks slips, breaks, and energy is released as seismic waves.
What happens when rock strength is exceeded?
They are subjected to stress and strain of plates tectonic movement.
What happens to rocks along the fault?
Small earthquakes that occur before a major quake.
Smaller, weaker quake that occurs after a major quake.
The record of all 3types of waves (p, s, surface)
Seismograph (how does it work?)
A rotating drum record the motion which is written down in lines by a pen.
The farther away an Earthquake is.
TThe longer the time between P and S Waves.....
The sinking of the ground caused by earthquake vibrations.
An area along a fault where there has not been any earthquake activity for a long period of time.
When soils or other unconsolidated materials that are saturated with water are turned into a liquid that is not able to support buildings.
The Japanese word for a seismic wave.
The thin, rocks outer layer of of Earth
Layer of Earth located below the crust.
The rigid outer layer of Earth, including the crust and upper mantle.
A weak, plastic layer of the mantle situated below the lithosphere; the rocks within this zone is easily deformed.
A layer beneath the mantle; contains liquid iron and generates Earth's magnetic field.
The solid innermost layer of Earth.
How many seismic stations are needed to locate an earthquake?
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