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Terms in this set (36)
an organism that causes disease ie: bacteria, virus, fungi, prions, parasites
a molecule (usually protein and polysaccharide) located on the surface of the pathogen. Presence of these trigger formation of antibodies (this term came from Antibody generator)
located on the left upper quadrant of the abdomen -the largest lymphatic organ; disintegrates old red blood cells, produces lymphocytes
a specialized bi-lobed lymphoid organ where the T cells or T lymphocytes mature -located in the upper mid chest behind the sternum
a type of white blood cell formed in the bone marrow, but matures in the lymphoid tissues of the spleen, lymph nodes, and thymus gland
numerous areas of lymphoid tissue in the wall of the small intestine that are involved in the development of immunity to antigens present there
a 4 inch "tube" at the lower right quadrant of the abdomen that sits at the junction of the small and large intestine. Proposed that it serves as a haven for useful bacteria when illness flushes those bacteria from the rest of the intestines
Consists of many biological structures and processes that protects against disease. To function properly, an immune system must detect a wide variety of agents, known as pathogens, from viruses to parasitic worms, and distinguish them from the organism's own healthy tissue.
One of the body's first lines of defense They sample, trap and remove bacteria and viruses that enter the body through the mouth or nose, at times becoming infected
is a clear-to-white fluid made of: White blood cells, especially lymphocytes, the cells that attack bacteria in the blood
small capsule shaped swellings in the lymphatic system where lymph is filtered and lymphocytes are formed.
T cells or T lymphocytes
a type of white blood cell that plays a central role in cell-mediated immunity. distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells (NK cells), by the presence of a T-cell receptor (TCR) on the cell surface. Made by the spleen and mature in the thymus
Produces 500 million blood cells/day including lymphocytes -white blood cells
a biological preparation that provides ACTIVE ACQUIRED immunity to a particular disease-
Lymphocyte(type of WBC) produced by the thymus that stimulates an immune response against an antigen can be distinguished from other lymphocytes, such as B cells and natural killer cells (NK cells), by the presence of a T-cell receptor (TCR) on the cell surface
Produced in the bone marrow and secretes antibodies in response to antigens
During an immune response, B and T cells create memory cells(a type of wbc). These are clones of the specific B and T cells that remain in the body protecting against reinfection by a specific pathogen- live in the lymph nodes
Substances that cause a febrile response in the body in an effort to prevents bacteria from multiplying (fever inducing) also viral and parasitic infections
The inflammatory response (inflammation) occurs when tissues are injured by bacteria, trauma, toxins, heat, or any other cause. The damaged cells release chemicals including histamine, bradykinin, and prostaglandins. These chemicals cause blood vessels to leak fluid into the tissues, causing swelling
arguably the most important cells in adaptive immunity, as they are required for almost all adaptive immune responses. They not only help activate B cells to secrete antibodies and macrophages to destroy ingested microbes, but they also help activate cytotoxic T cells to kill infected target cells.
kill pathogens by puncturing cell membrane
An amine (nitrogenous compound) produced by basophils and by mast cells found in nearby connective tissues. Histamine increases the permeability of the capillaries to white blood cells and some proteins, to allow them to engage pathogens in the infected tissues.
cells that protect the body by ingesting (phagocytosing) harmful foreign particles, bacteria, and dead or dying cells
The process by which a phagocyte engulfs a solid particle to form an internal vesicle known as a phagosome
a type of white blood cell that engulfs and digests cellular debris, foreign substances, microbes, cancer cells, and anything else that does not have the types of proteins specific to the surface of healthy body cells on its surface
Natural Killer Cells
A cytotoxic lymphocyte, NK cells provide rapid responses to viral-infected cells, acting at around 3 days after infection, and respond to tumor formation
a group of signaling proteins made and released by host cells in response to the presence of several pathogens, such as viruses, bacteria, parasites, and also tumor cells. In a typical scenario, a virus-infected cell will release interferons causing nearby cells to heighten their anti-viral defenses. A type of cytokine
cyto" meaning cell and "kinos" meaning movement. These are cell signalling molecules that aid cell in cell communication in immune responses and stimulate the movement of cells towards sites of inflammation, infection and trauma.
lines various cavities in the body and surrounds internal organs -continuous with the skin at various body openings such as the eyes, ears, nose and mouth, the urethral opening and the anus. Some secrete mucus, a thick protective fluid. The function of the membrane is to stop pathogens and dirt from entering the body and to prevent bodily tissues from becoming dehydrated.
Supressor t-cells (aka T-reg Cells)
a subpopulation of T cells which modulate the immune system, maintain tolerance to self-antigens, and abrogate autoimmune disease
an important "self-check" built into the immune system to prevent excessive reactions
are endogenous antigens (in the body's own tissues) that are capable of causing an immune response but do NOT in normal immune systems. Involved in autoimmune diseases like rheumatoid arthritis.
are identified as foreign invaders and can be attacked by the immune system. Including viral proteins, egg white, pollen, and transplanted tissues.
(Ab), also known as an immunoglobulin (Ig), is a large, Y-shaped protein produced mainly by plasma cells that is used by the immune system to identify and neutralize pathogens such as bacteria and viruses.
a medicine (such as penicillin or its derivatives) that inhibits the growth of or destroys microorganisms.
is a natural phenomenon. When an antibiotic is used, bacteria that can resist that antibiotic have a greater chance of survival than those that are "susceptible." MRSA is one example
Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus aureus- a bacteria that is resistant to many treatments and can cause very serious and life-threatening infections. There are actually many different kinds of MRSA and Staph aureus bacteria, called strains.
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