Terms in this set (24)
The first Indian civilization; also known as the Indus Valley civilization.
The dominant people in north India after the decline of the Indus Valley civilization; they spoke an early form of Sanskrit.
-Indo-European speaking nomads who entered India from the Central Asian steppes between 1500 and 1000 B.C.E. and greatly affected Indian society. Fierce fighters, moved to India built civilization made caste system. Uncertainty still exists among historians about the exact nature of their movement into India
The most ancient of the four Vedas, or Hindi religious epics, brought into India by the Aryans. It is a sacred writing on Hinduism that contains a collection of Hindu poems and hymns that were used for religious reasons. It portrays the Aryans as a warlike, adventurous group who counted their wealth in cattle and dominated other tribes of people.
Priests of the Aryans; they supported the growth of royal power in return for royal confirmation of their own religious rights, power, and status.
Caste System A Hindu social class system that controlled every aspect of daily life. A social structure in which social class is inherited from one's parents at birth. System in India that gives every Indian a particular place in the social hierarchy from birth. Individuals may improve the position they inherit in the caste system in their next life through their actions, or karma. After many lives of good karma, they may be relieved from cycle of life and win their place in heaven.
The transmigration of souls by a continual process of rebirth.
(Hinduism and Buddhism) the effects of a person's actions that determine his destiny in his next incarnation. In Indian tradition, the residue of deeds performed in past and present lives that adheres to a 'spirit' and determines what form it will assume in its next life cycle.
The tally of good and bad deeds that determines the status of an individual's next life.
The unchanging ultimate reality, according to the Upanishads.
A single spiritual power that Hindus believe lives in everything. The ultimate goal of every person was to reunite his or her soul (atman) with Brahman, which happens after the long cycle of rebirths.
An Indian religion that branched off from Hinduism and was founded by Mahavira; its belief is that everything has a soul, and its purpose was to cleanse the soul.Indian religion whose followers consider all life sacred and avoid destroying other life.
Four Noble Truths
As taught by the Buddha, the four basic beliefs that form the foundation of Buddhism: 1) All life is full of suffering, pain, and sorrow. 2) The cause of suffering is nonvirtue, or negative deeds and mindsets such as hatred and desire. 3) The only cure for suffering is to overcome nonvirture. 4) The way to overcome non virtue is to follow the Eightfold Path.
The code of conduct set forth by the Buddha in his first sermon, beginning with "right conduct" and ending with "right contemplation."
One of two great schools of Buddhist doctrine emphasizing a common search for universal salvation especially through faith. The "Greater Vehicle" in Buddhism, the more liberal and mystical northern school, which stressed the virtue of altruistic compassion rather than intellectual efforts at individual salvation. Mahayana Buddhists do believe in deities, but not in the same sense as western religions where the deity is a "Creator".
Buddhas-to-be who stayed in the world after enlightenment to help others on the path to salvation.
The Sanskrit word for moral law, central to both Buddhist and Hindu teachings.
The first Indian empire founded by Chandragupta.This was the name given to the first Indian dynasty, which began in about 322 B.C.E., lasted to 185 B.C.E. Founded by Chandragupta following the invasion of Alexander the Great, Chandragupta united India for the first time. Built on many of the Persian customs of rule, the Mauryan period is important for its great construction projects, emphasis on literacy, and acceptance of Buddhism
Code of Manu
A set of laws codified, or set down in writing, in the first centuries C.E. The code lays down laws relating to the caste system, including the belief that the caste system is divine, and therefore should not be questioned. It required that individuals must only marry in their caste, and that women must submit to the oldest male in the household. The Code of Manu formalizes long held Hindu traditions, and lasted until the 20th century.
It remains widely used in Indian religions, specifically in Hinduism, Buddhism, and Jainism, primarily as a tantric symbol to evoke shakti or the sacred symbol of auspiciousness. The word "swastika" comes from the Sanskrit svastika - "su" meaning "good" or "auspicious," "asti" meaning "to be," and "ka" as a suffix
Third ruler of the Mauryan Empire in India (r. 269-232 B.C.E.). He converted to Buddhism and broadcast his precepts on inscribed stones and pillars, the earliest surviving Indian writing. A devout Buddhist, he also protected India's other great religions, Hinduism and Jainism. Despite the efforts of the Mauryan leaders, upon Ashoka's death India became fragmented again just as Alexander's death ended the unity he created.
one of the two major traditions of Buddhism, now practiced in a variety of forms especially in China, Tibet, Japan, and Korea. The tradition emerged around the 1st century AD and is typically concerned with altruistically oriented spiritual practice as embodied in the ideal of the bodhisattva.
also known as the Buddha "the awakened one" was the leader and founder of a sect of wanderer ascetics (Sramanas), one of many sects which existed at that time all over India. This sect came to be known as Sangha, to distinguish it from other similar communities
Has a cast system and it is polytheistic
each of a series of Hindu sacred treatises written in Sanskrit circa 800-200 BC, expounding the Vedas in predominantly mystical and monistic terms
the complex sacrificial religion that emerged in post-Vedic India ( circa 900 BC) under the influence of the dominant priesthood (Brahmans), an early stage in the development of Hinduism.