Settlement was hard due to money, which was eventually fixed by the Joint-Stock Company (people would invest without fear of bankruptcy, purchasing a stock, and recovering the initial amount and plus a portion of the profits at the very end).
English citizens invested in companies and projects building large capital, enough to colonize Virginia.
1966, James issued Virginia's first charter headed by Sir Thomas Smith, establishing in Jamestown, were disease and attacks by Indians and Native Americans questioned the settlement.
Labor system nearly destroyed the colony, adventurers sat around while other men performed agricultural tasks.
Society began to decline, eventually disease, war, and starvation ravaged the settlement.
John Smith, came in to help the settlement by trading with the Indians for food, he mapped the Chesapeake Bay, and was rescued by Pocahontas from execution. He instituted a tough military discipline and seized control of the council.
Leaders of the Virginia Company took over the Virginia Government, opening the Joint-Stock Company to the public.
Starving time in 1609-1611 due tot he terrible winters causing the colonist to turn into cannibalism, Natives and Americans to dislike each other which lead to war between the two. War between the English and Powhatans caused the entire Powhatan empire to destruct.
Pilgrims aboard the Mayflower who landed on Plymouth Rock. They were English farmers, who believed the Church of England retained too many traces of Catholic origin. They were called the Scrooby congregation (Separatists) moving to Holland, and eventually sailing to America, landing in New England due to navigation failure. They were threatened by mutiny, signing the Mayflower Compact (covenant and combine to make a civil body politic).
Plymouth had disease and hunger issues killing half of the people. Debts with England burdened the new colony.
Squanto, a Patuxt Indian was welcomed by the first Pilgrims while speaking excellent English. He taught the Pilgrims how to hunt and agriculture.
Separatist hunted, fished, traded fur, families relied on husbandry, grain, and livestock, but only attracted a few settlers which the colony was absorbed by the Massachusetts Bay in 1691.
16,000 men and women came to the Puritan colony. People came from all over, with different cultures, skills, and with a balanced sex ratio. They had clean water, healthy climate, and reduction in long distance migration. They established everything by the formation of God. Believing they lived by the Scripture, to reform the Church, create a Old Testament, giving them peace and prosperity.
They created Congregationalism.
Each person had to provide testimony (confession of faith) a demanding process. This allowed them to sacraments, choosing ministers, and questions towards theology. Africans could not vote for ministers, but still could be members of the Congregational Church.
They allowed businesses to be set up by the joint-stock company.
John Winthrop pushed for freeman, which allowed 40% in 1640 males to vote. They voted for a governor, magistrates (court of assistants), and deputies who represented the interests of the town.
The colony made good deal of money from selling shares in village lands. Villagers had to pay taxes, ministers salary, and serve in militia.
1648, Laws and Liberties which explained that ordinary colonist their rights and responsibilities as a citizen of the commonwealth. This endangered public trust in government and discouraged magistrates from their exercise of authority.
William preached extreme separatism of the Bay colonist if they were nominal members of the Church of England. He was banned by the Magistrates from the colony even after they tried to compromise. He finished his province in Rhode Island.
Anne Hutchison was another threat to Mass Bay finding her religious ideas as Antinomianism (confusing), preaching that all but 2 ministers lost touch with the Holy Spirit. She couldn't be tested by the Scripture and said she couldn't live without Moral Law which caused her exile and any followers to Rhode Island.
White planters forced African Americans to produce staple crops for world market.
Sir John Collecton, established 8 powerful colonist as the True and Absolute Lord Proprietors of Carolina. They provided incentives for settlers, but the men wanted certain rights and privileges, price of settlement, and demanded a representative assembly, liberty of conscience, and liberal head right system.
1669, Anthony Ashley Cooper persuaded the people of Carolina to invest in their own colony. He created Charles Town, brought the Fundamental Constitutions of Carolina which created the local aristocracy consisting of proprietors and lesser nobles. People who bought land were given the right to sit with the Council of Nobles, administer justice, oversee civil affairs, and initiate legislation.
Many settlers came from sugar plantations from the Barbados. They established themselves as the colonies most power political faction. They had good results from beef, skins, and naval stores.
They had problems like factions vied for special privileges, they resisted proprietors policies, and appointed governors that made things worst.
House of Assembly assumed the right of legislation by the end of the century.
1729, the king created separate royal governments for North and South Carolina.
Majority of the population married, men bringing farmland to the marriage, and prospective wives were expected to provide one-half what the bride-groom offered. Women often contributed money or household goods.
Household was a demanding work, clearing enough land to feed the family. Additional was to be surplus as it was sold or bartered.
People lived in communities with their parents and grandparents. Marriages usually took place less than 13 miles apart.
Religious values, common purpose, and family reinforced communal ties.
Towns (collection of families) intermarried creating a kinship network. Original founders of the town dominated the local politics and economic affairs.
Churches were established in which they were more focused on spiritual welfare of their own families. They established the Half-Way Covenant which allowed grandchildren in full communion to be baptized even though parents could not demonstrate conversion.
Education was family responsibility, teaching the principles of Christianity. Massachusetts General Court established that towns with 15 families to make elementary schools supported by local taxes. A large majority of the adult males could read and write. The printing press was established in 1639. The New England Primer taught children the alphabet and Lord's Prayer. 1638, young men could attend Harvard College, the first institution of higher learning in England. They read logic, divinity, and several ancient languages.
Deborah Gray White, William Deverell Gerald A. Danzer, J. Jorge Klor de Alva, Larry S. Krieger, Louis E. Wilson, Nancy Woloch Alan Brinkley, Albert S. Broussard, Donald A. Ritchie, James M. McPherson, Joyce Appleby