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History Renaissance Test
Terms in this set (32)
"rebirth"; following the Middle Ages, a movement that centered on the revival of interest in the classical learning of Greece and Rome
an intellectual movement during the Renaissance that focused on the study of worldly subjects, such as poetry and philosophy, and on human potential and achievements
having to do with worldly, as opposed to religious, matters
(1479-1529) Italian diplomat and writer; he wrote The Courtier, one of the most important books of the Renaissance, in which he delineates the rules and correct behaviors for a courtier to adopt in order to win favor from a ruler.
(1469-1527) Italian political philosopher and statesman; he wrote The Prince, which advised rulers to separate morals from politics. He insisted that a ruler do whatever is necessary to succeed and that the ends would justify the means.
Lorenzo de Medici
(1449-1492) Florentine ruler; he supported some of the most talented Renaissance artists. He was known for his patronage and liberal mind.
Leonardo da Vinci
(1452-1519) Italian painter, sculptor, architect, musician, engineer, and scientist; his interests and talents spanned numerous disciplines. He painted the Mona Lisa.
(1475-1564) Italian Renaissance sculptor, architect, painter, and poet; he sculpted the Pieta and the David, and he painted the ceiling of the Sistine Chapel.
(1483-1520) Italian Renaissance painter; he painted frescos, his most famous being The School of Athens.
(c. 1397-1468) German inventor and printer; he invented movable type. His first printed publication was a 1,282-page Bible.
(1466-1536) Dutch priest and humanist; he wrote on the need for a pure and simple Christian life. To his regret, his writings fanned the flames of discontent with the Roman Catholic Church.
Sir Thomas More
(1478-1535) English statesman and author; he wrote Utopia, which describes an ideal society.
(1564-1616) English dramatist and poet; he is considered one of the greatest dramatists of all time and wrote such works as Romeo and Juliet, Hamlet, and A Midsummer Night's Dream.
Christine de Pisan
(1364-c. 1430) French poet and author; her work The City of Women discusses the role of women in society. She championed the causes of equality and education for women.
(1471-1528) German painter, engraver, and theoretician; he combined Italian Renaissance techniques of realism and perspective with elements unique to the northern Renaissance, such as the use of oils in his painting.
Jan van Eyck
(c. 1390-1441) Flemish painter; his paintings focused on landscapes and domestic life and fused the everyday with the religious.
a religious movement in the 1500s that split the Christian church in western Europe and led to the establishment of a number of new churches
pardons issued by the pope of the Roman Catholic Church that could reduce a soul's time in purgatory; from the 1100s to the 1500s, indulgences could be purchased, which led to corruption
(1483-1546) German monk whose protests against the Catholic Church in 1517 (the Ninety-Five Theses) led to calls for reform and to the movement known as the Reformation.
a government ruled by religious leaders who claim God's authority
(1509-1564) French Protestant theologian of the Reformation; he founded Calvinism, which was associated with the doctrine of predestination.
the belief that at the beginning of time God decided who would gain salvation
(1491-1547) King of England from 1509 to 1547; his desire to annul his marriage led to a conflict with the pope, England's break with the Roman Catholic Church, and its embrace of Protestantism. Henry established the Church of England in 1532.
Declared invalid based on church laws
(1533-1603) Queen of England from 1558 to 1603; a skillful politician and diplomat, she reasserted Protestant supremacy in England.
the Catholic Church's series of reforms in response to the spread of Protestantism in the mid-1500s to the early 1600s
members of a Catholic religious order, the Society of Jesus, founded by Ignatius Loyola in 1534
Ignatius of Loyola
(1491-1556) Spanish churchman and founder of the Jesuits (1534); this order of Roman Catholic priests proved an effective force for reviving Catholicism during the Catholic Reformation.
Council of Trent
a meeting of church leaders in the 1500s whose purpose was to clearly define Catholic doctrines for the Catholic Reformation
(1538-1584) Archbishop of Milan from 1560 to 1584; he took steps to implement the reforms ordered by the Council of Trent.
Francis of Sales
(1567-1622) French Roman Catholic leader and preacher; he worked to win back the district of Savoy, in France, from Calvinism.
Teresa of Avila
(1515-1582) Spanish Carmelite nun and one of the principal saints of the Roman Catholic Church; she reformed the Carmelite order. Her fervor for the Catholic Church proved inspiring for many people during the Reformation period.
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