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Genetics chapter 18
Terms in this set (44)
Cancer is genetic, but is not usually __________.
__________ are substances that cause cancer most are ______ (damage DNA)
Cancer is a group of diseases caused by loss of _________.
cell cycle control
If a cell escapes normal control over its division rate, it forms a growth called a _________.
A tumor is ______ if it does not spread or "invade" surrounding tissue and cancerous or ______ if it infiltrates nearby tissues.
__________ is when the tumor spreads to other parts of the body via the blood or lymph vessels.
Cancer causing genes are called_________ and cause cancer if inappropriately________.
The deletion or inactivation of ________________ genes causes cancer because these genes work as cell cycle checkpoints.
The timing, rate, and number of cell divisions depends on what three factors?
Protein growth factors, Signaling molecules from outside the cell, Transcription factors within
Checkpoints control the cell cycle by ensuring that _____________.
mitotic events occur in the correct sequence
Many types of cancer result from faulty _______ which allow cancer to send a cell down a pathway of unrestricted ________.
check points, cell division
Cancer cells either lose specializations or _________.
Loss of control of ______ length may also contribute to cancer.
_______ is the enzyme (complex of RNA and protein) that adds telomere sequences to the ends of chromosomes.
Normal, specialized cells have telomerase turned ____ limits cell division, where as cancer cells turn telomerase _____ in order to divide indefinitely.
_______ mutations occur sporadically in non-sex cells.
Somatic mutations result from a single _______ mutation or two ______ mutations in the same gene.
__________ cancer susceptibility is not passed on to offspring.
___________mutation cancer susceptibility is passed on to offspring, but often requires a second _______mutation.
Cancer cells will divide continually, and quicker than normal cells, if given _______and ______.
space and nutrients
True or false: Cancer cells are not transplantable.
Cancer cells are _________ which means that they lose their specialized identity.
Cancer induces _________: the formation of local blood vessels.
Cancer is _______ (it squeezes into any space available) and tend to ________ (move to other locations in the body.
Cancer can begin at the cellular level in at least four ways: 1) Activation _______ that produce cancer cells, 2) _____________, 3) Increase in proportion of a tissue that consists of _____________, 4) Faulty ____ repair.
of stem cells, Dedifferentiation, stem cells or progenitor cells, tissue
Specialized cells lose some of their distinguishing features as mutations occur when they divide resulting in ____________.
____________ are normal versions of genes that promote cell division.
Proto-oncogenes are called ________ in their mutated form and one copy is sufficient to promote cell division.
Viruses integrated next to a ________ can cause transcription when the virus is transcribed.
Moving a proto-oncogene next to a _________ (such as an antibody gene) can lead to overexpression of the proto-oncogene.
highly transcribed gene
Most ______________patients have a translocated Philadelphia chromosome (tip of 9 on 22).
Chronic Myelogenous Leukemia (CML)
Tumor suppressor genes normally stop a cell ________.
Mutations of _________ of a tumor suppressor gene is usually required to allow cell division.
Tumor suppressor genes can also be lost by deletion or silenced by promoter ___________.
The ________ is the "guardian of the genome;" If damage cannot be repaired, it can induce apoptosis.
More than _______ of human cancers involve an abnormal p53 gene.
Rare inherited mutations in the p53 gene cause a disease called ______ in which family members have many different types of cancer at early ages.
The two main forms of breast cancer are:
Familial and sporadic forms
In the __________form of breast cancer a germline mutation is inherited and then a somatic mutation occurs in a breast cell.
In the __________form of breast cancer two somatic mutations affect the same cell.
The two major breast-cancer susceptibility genes are______.
BRCA1 and BRCA2
Inheriting BRCA mutations increases the risk of ___________.
other types of cancer
_____ normally control the expression of proto-oncogenes and tumor suppressor genes thus, when they are mutated or differentially expressed, cancer can result.
New types of cancer drugs stimulate cells to regain specialized characteristics such as:
Inhibit telomerase, Induce apoptosis, Inhibit angiogenesis
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