18 terms

Music Test 3

Chinese Native American Arabic
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Takht Ensemble
Arabic: The traditional small ensemble of Arabic instrumentalists, Contains 5-6 players, each playing his/her own part, The music is performed heterophonically: each melodic instrument plays the same basic melody, but each instrument adds its own ornaments.
Oud
Arabic: Plucked stringed instrument with five courses of two strings and one single string
Ney
Arabic: A wooden flute with 6-7 holes
Qanun
Arabic: A plucked stringed instrument in trapezoidal shape, Usually there are at least 24 courses of three strings
Riqq
Arabic: A tambourine (complete with cymbals along the outer edge), Ten pairs of cymbals in 5 sets
Maqam
Arabic: Each piece is based on one or more scales, which are called ?
Sagat
Arabic: Finger Symbols
Zheng
Chinese: Aboard zither chordophone, A series of strings is laid lengthwise across a wooden frame that is attached to its own resonating chamber
Pipa
Chinese: A four-string fretted instrument that is sometimes referred to as the Chinese lute, It is held vertically.
Erhu
Chinese: A two-string bowed instrument, sometimes referred to as the Chinese violin
Muqam
Chinese: The melody type used in Uyghur music, that is, a musical mode and set of melodic formulas used to guide improvisation and composition.
Features of the takht ensemble
(1) Contains 5-6 players, each playing his/her own part
(2) The music is performed heterophonically: each melodic instrument plays the same basic melody, but each instrument adds its own ornaments.
(3) Various forms are used for takht music
(4) Sometimes singers are added
Features of Arabic dance
(1) Inextricably tied to Egyptian music. Much music is written exclusively for dance
(2) Most dancers in structured settings are women
(3) And, of course, belly dancing is a common performance style
Features of Arabic tonal system
(1) Each piece is based on one or more scales, which are called maqamat (sing.: maqam).
These maqamat share some important similarities to Western scales:
(2) Usually, but not always, the same notes are used in the ascending and descending versions of the scale
(3) The maqam is built mostly of half and whole steps (or intervals approximating them)
(4) The maqamat are transposable, although only to a limited extent
(5) In the course of a single composition, the music may modulate from one maqam to another
Content of the Chinese small music ensemble
(1) The three instruments are the erhu, pipa, and zheng
(2) Note that the erhu and zheng carry the most interest in melody and effect. The pipa provides a rhythmic and harmonic background.
Features of Beijing Opera
(1) Highly stylized form of opera that uses "heightened speech, song, dance, mime, acting, and acrobatics...."
(2) Stage props are minimal, and action is highly stylized.
(3) The accompanying instrumental ensemble consists of native Chinese instruments, including the pipa and erhu.
(4) The speaking/singing character types are very stylized: male, female, painted-face male, and clown.
Features of Native American music
(1) Music of Native Americans is generally vocal (or choral) and exclusively melodic
(2) Thus there is no harmony or polyphony
(3) Nor is pitch or intonation precise
(4) Instruments are either percussion (drums and rattles) or wind (flutes and whistles)
(5) Traditional songs fall into two categories: 1) those which have been handed down orally as a general part of the culture; and 2) those which deal with ceremony and medicine
(6) Songs are often thought of as gifts from the divine creator, and the singer is given a song through his/her dreams or through interaction with others
Instruments used in Native American music, and characteristic features of those instruments
Native American Flute: Pentatonic scale
Ojibwa Drum: