ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
basic, nonbasic sectors
Basic sector of a local economy includes any industry that brings in money from outside the area
Nonbasic sector includes all industry that supports and services the local community
served as the 24th President of the American Sociological Society
the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
central business district (CBD)
area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
a city surrounded by suburbs
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
provided a model for settlement patterns that rested on several assumptions
people living in a large densely populated municipality
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
the merging of two regions for benefit
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
councils of government
cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
clusters of large buildings away from the central business district
the process of exporting goods from a region
feminization of poverty
the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
time where the major urban hearths came into existance
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
GHETTOS: portion of a city in which members of a minority group live; especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure. GHETTOIZATION: The process of becoming a ghetto, an isolated and underprivileged urban area.
(in European cities) undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law
a community of people smaller than a village
Harris and Ullman
developed multiple nuclei model explaining that large cities developed by spreading from several places of growth, not just one
hierarchy of central places
Central places are more economicly active and thrive
a city develops in a series of sectors, not rings
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
in situ accretion
where less expensive homes and businesses seem to be in a chronic state of ongoing construction and renovation.
a city overrun with factories, supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the consturction of tenements for a growing labor force.
urban area over 10 mil. People
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
huge stores with a wide variety of products designed for one stop shopping
fronted by royal, religious, public, and private buildings evincing wealth and prosperity, power and influence (downtown)
a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
metropolitan statistical area
area with a city of 50 thousand or more people, together with adjacent urban communities that have strong ties to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
having a nucleus or occurring in the nucleus
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs
A city which is greater than two times the next largest city in a nation (or contains over one-third of a nation's population). The primate city is usually very expressive of the national culture and often the capital city.
a housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the 11th largest settlement is Un the population of the largest settlement.
The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
patterns of settlement on earth;s surface: rank-size rule and Christaller's central place theory
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
puts together information from the census tracts to create and overall picture of how various types of people are distrbuted within a broader area, like a city
cities are dominated by one activity such as mining, manufacturing or recreation and serving national and international markets.
an ungainly posture with arms and legs spread about
independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.
the people living in a municipality smaller than a city
Cities where major routes converge - roads, railroads, sea traffic, and air transportation
a geographical area constituting a city or town
a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and sometimes the lives of others
A nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor
The study of how people use space in cities
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
urban influence zone
Areas outside the city that are affected by it.
the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums
American sociologist whose theory was based on an essay 'Urbanism as a Way of Life.'
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban
zone of maturity
old part of city, more wealthy live here, bigger houses
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.