AP Human Geography Unit 7 Vocabulary

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base ratio
ratio between workers employed in the basic sector and those employed in the nonbasic sector
basic, nonbasic sectors
Basic sector of a local economy includes any industry that brings in money from outside the area

Nonbasic sector includes all industry that supports and services the local community
Burgess, E.W.
served as the 24th President of the American Sociological Society
Bosnywash
the heavily populated area extending from Boston to Washington and including New York City, Philadelphia, and Baltimore.
census tract
An area deliniated by the us beureau of the census for which statisitcs are published; in urbanized areas, census tracts correspond roughly to neighborhoods
central business district (CBD)
area of a city where retail and office activities are clustered
center city
a city surrounded by suburbs
central place theory
A theory that explains the distribution of services, based on the fact that settlements serve as centers of market areas for services; larger settlements are fewer and farther apart than smaller settlements and provide services for a larger number of people who are willing to travel farther.
Christaller, Waller
provided a model for settlement patterns that rested on several assumptions
city
people living in a large densely populated municipality
city-state
a city with political and economic control over the surrounding countryside
complementary regions
the merging of two regions for benefit
concentric zone model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are spatially arranged in a series of rings.
councils of government
cooperative agencies consisting of representatives from local governments in the region
disamenity sector
The very poorest parts of cities that in extreme cases are not even connected to regular city services and are controlled by gangs or drug lords.
edge cities
clusters of large buildings away from the central business district
export activities
the process of exporting goods from a region
feminization of poverty
the trend of women making up an increasing proportion of the poor
formative era
time where the major urban hearths came into existance
gentrification
the restoration of run-down urban areas by the middle class (resulting in the displacement of lower-income people)
ghettos, ghettoization
GHETTOS: portion of a city in which members of a minority group live; especially because of social, legal, or economic pressure. GHETTOIZATION: The process of becoming a ghetto, an isolated and underprivileged urban area.
greenbelts
(in European cities) undeveloped area neighboring an urban area, often protected from development by planning law
hamlet
a community of people smaller than a village
Harris and Ullman
developed multiple nuclei model explaining that large cities developed by spreading from several places of growth, not just one
hierarchy of central places
Central places are more economicly active and thrive
Hoyt, Homer
a city develops in a series of sectors, not rings
Infrastructure
the stock of basic facilities and capital equipment needed for the functioning of a country or area
in situ accretion
where less expensive homes and businesses seem to be in a chronic state of ongoing construction and renovation.
manufacturing city
a city overrun with factories, supply facilities, the expansion of transport systems, and the consturction of tenements for a growing labor force.
megacity
urban area over 10 mil. People
megalopolis
a very large urban complex (usually involving several cities and towns)
megastores
huge stores with a wide variety of products designed for one stop shopping
mercantile city
fronted by royal, religious, public, and private buildings evincing wealth and prosperity, power and influence (downtown)
metropolitan area
a major population center made up of a large city and the smaller suburbs and towns that surround it
metropolitan statistical area
area with a city of 50 thousand or more people, together with adjacent urban communities that have strong ties to the central city.
micropolitan statistical area
An urbanized area of between 10,000 and 50,000 inhabitants, the county in which it is found, and adjacent counties tied to the city.
multiple-nuclei model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a collection of nodes of activities.
multiplier effect
An effect in economics in which an increase in spending produces an increase in national income and consumption greater than the initial amount spent.
nucleated
having a nucleus or occurring in the nucleus
peripheral model
A model of North American urban areas consisting of an inner city surrounded by large suburban residential and business areas tied together by a beltway or ring road.
physical city
a continuous development that contains a central city and many nearby cities, towns, and suburbs
primate cities
A city which is greater than two times the next largest city in a nation (or contains over one-third of a nation's population). The primate city is usually very expressive of the national culture and often the capital city.
public housing
a housing development that is publicly funded and administered for low-income families
rank-size rule
A pattern of settlements in a country, such that the 11th largest settlement is Un the population of the largest settlement.
rush hours
The four consecutive 15-minute periods in the morning and evening with the heaviest volumes of traffic
sector model
A model of the internal structure of cities in which social groups are arranged around a series of sectors, or wedges, radiating out from the central business district (CBD).
settlement geography
patterns of settlement on earth;s surface: rank-size rule and Christaller's central place theory
smart growth
legislation and regulations to limit suburban sprawl and preserve farmland
social area analysis
puts together information from the census tracts to create and overall picture of how various types of people are distrbuted within a broader area, like a city
special-function cities
cities are dominated by one activity such as mining, manufacturing or recreation and serving national and international markets.
sprawl
an ungainly posture with arms and legs spread about
states
independent political units with territorial boundaries that are internationally recognized by other states
suburbs
Residential areas surrounding a city. Shops and businesses moved to suburbia as well as people.
town
the people living in a municipality smaller than a city
transportation centers
Cities where major routes converge - roads, railroads, sea traffic, and air transportation
urban area
a geographical area constituting a city or town
urban elite
a group of decision makers and organizers who controlled the resources, and sometimes the lives of others
urban empire
A nation or group of territories ruled by a single, powerful leader or emperor
urban geography
The study of how people use space in cities
urban hierarchy
a ranking of settlements according to their size and economic functions
urban influence zone
Areas outside the city that are affected by it.
urban renewal
the clearing and rebuilding and redevelopment of urban slums
Wirth, Louis
American sociologist whose theory was based on an essay 'Urbanism as a Way of Life.'
world city
Centers of economic, culture, and political activity that are strongly interconnected and together control the global systems of finance and commerce.
zone in transition
An area that is either becoming more rural or more urban
zone of maturity
old part of city, more wealthy live here, bigger houses
zoning ordinances
A law that limits the permitted uses of land and maximum density of development in a community.