Region in the far north of colonial India, had a predominantly Muslim population. 1947, Hindu ruler of Kashmir decided that it should become part of India. After colonial India became independent as the nations of Pakistan and India, they fought over control of Kashmir, which ended up being divided between the 2. The UN has tried to mediate this dispute without success. UN has favored holding a referendum in Kashmir so that the population can decide with which nation it wishes to affiliate. The border remains tense with large numbers of troops on each side. Militant Islamic groups still resist Indian rule in the southern part of Kashmir.