All you need to know for APUSH
American Pageant 14th edition, left out alot of obvious terms and topics not likely to be covered on essays
Terms in this set (424)
A group of Irish men who protested the Quaker oligarchy's lenient policy toward the Indians
Small but nasty insurrection against eastern domination of the conolys affairs- Lead to the american revolution
the trading system between the Americas, England and Africa; Africa would give slaves and rum to the Americas, including the West Indies; America would offer timber, tobacco, fish, and flour; England would mainly process and ship back
A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.
16th century theology (named after its founder Jacobus Arminius) that opposes the absolute predestinarianism of John Calvin and holds that human free will is compatible with God's sovereignity
Religious revival in the American colonies of the eighteenth century during which a number of new Protestant churches were established.
The "New Lights" were new religious movements formed during the Great Awakening and broke away from the congregational church in New England. The "Old Lights" were the established congregational church.
Poor richard's almanack
by Benjamin Franklin (1732-1758) it contained many sayings called from the thinkers of the ages, emphazised such homespun virtues as thrift, industry, morality and common sense. Was well known in Europe and was more widely read in America than anything except the Bible.
This 1735 trial of a New York newspaper editor for criticising a British-appointed governor. It resulted in a not guilty verdict, since the articles were based on fact, not slander. This acquittal was the first important victory for freedom of the press in the colonies. Andrew Hamilton, a well-known Philadelphia lawyer, represented the defendant at no charge.
French Protestants. The Edict of Nantes (1598) freed them from persecution in France, but when that was revoked in the late 1700s, hundreds of thousands of Huguenots fled to other countries, including America.
Edict of Nantes
Grante, 1598 - Granted the Huguenots liberty of conscience and worship.
King William's War
(1689-1697) Small war between French and English that had small battles fought in Northern New England.
Queen Anne's War
(1702-1713), second of the four North American wars waged by the British and French between 1689 and 1763. The wars were the result of the worldwide maritime and colonial rivalry between Great Britain and France and their struggle for predominance on the European and North American continents; each of the wars fought in North America corresponded more or less to a war fought between the same powers in Europe.
War of Jenkin's Ear
Land squabble between Britain and Spain over Georgia and trading rights. Battles took place in the Caribbean and on the Florida/Georgia border. The name comes from a British captain named Jenkin, whose ear was cut off by the Spanish.
King George's War
1744 and 1748. England and Spain were in conflict with French. New England captured French Bastion at Louisburg on Cape Brenton Island. Had to abandon it once peace treaty ended conflict.
French settlers who would not pledge their loyalties to the British and were driven from their homes; cajuns of Louisiana are descendants of these people
Seven Years War
Known in America as French and Indian war. It was the war between the French and their Indian allies and the English that proved the English to be the more dominant force of what was to be the United States both commercially and in terms of controlled regions.
Franklin himself was the leading spirit of the 1754 Intercolonial congress. Urged the crown to take direct control of Indian relations beyond the boundaries of the colonies. Drafted a plan of confederation for the continental colonies. was not ratified by any colony and parliament did not accept it.
trained professional soldiers, as distinct from militia or conscripts
Battle of Quebec
a battle won by the British over the French, and the turning point in the French and Indian War. The french flag flied in Canada for the last time
1763 - An Indian uprising after the French and Indian War, led by an Ottowa chief named Pontiac. They opposed British expansion into the western Ohio Valley and began destroying British forts in the area. The attacks ended when Pontiac was killed.
Proclamation of 1763
A proclamation from the British government which forbade British colonists from settling west of the Appalacian Mountains, and which required any settlers already living west of the mountains to move back east.
One in which all citizens willingly suborinated their private selfish interests to the common good.
A group of British political commentators. They were very nervous about the power of Parliament and the arbitrary powers of the monarch. They warned the colonists to be always on the lookout for a violation of their rights. Worried about the power of a monarch.
an economic policy under which nations sought to increase their wealth and power by obtaining large amounts of gold and silver and by selling more goods than they bought
halved the duty on foreign made molasses, placed duties on certain imports, and strenghtened the enforcement of the law allowing prosecutors to try smuggling cases in a vice-admiralty court
an act passed by the British that allowed British troops to live in the homes of the colonists
a tax collected by requiring a stamp to be purchased and attached (usually on documents or publications)
British courts originally established to try cases involving smuggling or violations of the Navigation Acts which the British government sometimes used to try American criminals in the colonies. Trials in Admiralty Courts were heard by judges without a jury.
Stamp Act Congress
A meeting of delegations from many of the colonies, the congress was formed to protest the newly passed Stamp Act It adopted a declaration of rights as well as sent letters of complaints to the king and parliament, and it showed signs of colonial unity and organized resistance.
Sons and Daughters of Liberty
Took the law into their own hands organized nonimportation agreements and protested
Passed in 1766 just after the repeal of the Stamp Act, the Declaratory Act stated that Parliament could legislate for the colonies in all cases. Most colonists interpreted the act as a face-saving mechanism and nothing more. Parliament, however, continually interpreted the act in its broadest sense in order to legislate in and control the colonies. Blinded the colonies.
A tax that the British Parliament placed on leads, glass, paint and tea
Committees of correspondence
Organization founded by Samuel Adams consisting of a system of communication between patriot leaders in New England and throughout the colonies
in response to Boston Tea Party, 4 acts passed in 1774, Port of Boston closed, reduced power of assemblies in colonies, permitted royal officers to be tried elsewhere, provided for quartering of troop's in barns and empty houses
Signed in 1774, intended to reorganize the way these British territories were governed
First Continental Congress
The First Continental Congress convened on September 5, 1774, to protest the Intolerable Acts. The congress endorsed the Suffolk Resolves, voted for a boycott of British imports, and sent a petition to King George III, conceding to Parliament the power of regulation of commerce but stringently objecting to its arbitrary taxation and unfair judicial system.
A document produced by the Continental Congress in 1775 that called for a complete boycott of British goods. This included non-importation, non-exportation and non-consumption. It was the closest approach to a written constitution yet from the colonies. It was hoped to bring back the days before Parliamentary taxation. Those who violated The Association in America were tarred and feathered
Lexington and concord
The first battle of the Revolution in which British general Thomas Gage went after the stockpiled weapons of the colonists in Concord, Massachusetts.
Place where Washington's army spent the winter of 1777-1778, a 4th of troops died here from disease and malnutriton, Steuben comes and trains troops
Secound Continental Congress
All 13 colonies were represented this time. There was still no well defined sentiment for independcnce - merley a desire to continue fighting in the hope that the king would consent to a redress of grievances
a battle that took place on the strategic point of Breed's Hill. British victory on account of the depletion of American supplies. yet gave them confidence- It pushed Americans towards a final decision for war.
Olive Branch Petition
On July 8, 1775, the colonies made a final offer of peace to Britain, agreeing to be loyal to the British government if it addressed their grievances (repealed the Coercive Acts, ended the taxation without representation policies). It was rejected by Parliament, which in December 1775 passed the American Prohibitory Act forbidding all further trade with the colonies.
Declaration of Independence
Declaration of the rights of Man
French Revolution document that outlined what the National Assembly considered to be the natural rights of all people and the rights that they possessed as citizens
Battle of Long Island
George Washington and his army are badly beaten at this battle on August 27, 1776. Sorely outnumbered and surrounded at Brooklyn Heights, the 9,500 troops that survived retreated under cover of night across the East River to Manhattan.
A battle that took place in New York where the Continental Army defeated the British. It proved to be the turning point of the war. This battle ultimately had France to openly support the colonies with military forces in addition to the supplies and money already being sent.
its basic principles were, no political connection, no military connection, only commercial connection
Treaty of Fort Stanwix
A forced treaty between the United States and an Indian Nation, Indians ceded most of their land.
Treaty of paris
Agreement signed by British and American leaders that stated the United States of America was a free and independent country
Society of the Cincinnati
An exclusive hereditary order of the Continental Army officers.
Virginia Statute for religious freedom
written in 1776 by Jefferson and Madison. Argued that the concept of compulsory religion is wrong, no forced religious worship or ministry and no discrimination on account of his opinions or belief but free to believe what they wish, and that these rights were natural rights of mankind.
Territory consisting of the states Illinois, Wisconsin, Ohio, Michigan and the northeastern chunk of Minnesota.
Land Ordiance of 1785
Legislation passed by congress authorizing surveys and the division of public lands in the western region of the country.
Enacted in 1787, it is considered one of the most significant achievements of the Articles of Confederation. It established a system for setting up governments in the western territories so they could eventually join the Union on an equal footing with the original 13 states
A 1787 rebellion in which ex-Revolutionary War soldiers attempted to prevent foreclosures of farms as a result of high interest rates and taxes.
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
Opposite of the Virginia Plan, it proposed a single-chamber congress in which each state had one vote. This created a conflict with representation between bigger states, who wanted control befitting their population, and smaller states, who didn't want to be bullied by larger states.
Compromise made by Constitutional Convention in which states would have equal representation in one house of the legislature and representation based on population in the other house
(civil law) a law established by following earlier judicial decisions
Essays promoting ratification of the Constitution, published anonymously by Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison in 1787 and 1788.
Judiciary Act of 1789
In 1789 Congress passed this Act which created the federal-court system. The act managed to quiet popular apprehensions by establishing in each state a federal district court that operated according to local procedures.
Funding At Par
it meant that the federal government would pay off its debts at face value with interest
a tax on certain items such as alcohol, tobacco, and gasoline
In 1794, farmers in Pennsylvania rebelled against Hamilton's excise tax on whiskey, and several federal officers were killed in the riots caused by their attempts to serve arrest warrants on the offenders. In October, 1794, the army, led by Washington, put down the rebellion. The incident showed that the new government under the Constitution could react swiftly and effectively to such a problem, in contrast to the inability of the government under the Articles of Confederation to deal with Shay's Rebellion.
Reign of Terror
Distracted the french while America was still new
Neutrailty Proclamation (Washington)
Washington wanated the USA to stay out of forign affaris as it was still a new fragile country.
Battle of fallen timbers
The U.S. Army defeated the Native Americans under Shawnee Chief Blue Jacket and ended Native American hopes of keeping their land that lay north of the Ohio River
Treaty of Greenville
This treaty between the Americans and the Native Americans. In exchange for some goods, the Indians gave the United States territory in Ohio. Anthony Wayne was the American representative.
Was made up by John Jay. It said that Britain was to pay for Americans ships that were seized in 1793. It said that Americans had to pay British merchants debts owed from before the revolution and Britain had agreed to remove their troops from the Ohio Valley
agreement between the united states and spain that changed floridas border and made it easier for american ships to use the port of new orleans
Referred to as Washington's Farewell Address. Its main points included: assuming leadership in the Western Hemisphere, developing its own trade, and not entering into permanent alliances with foreign nations, especially with Europe.
An insult to the American delegation when they were supposed to be meeting French foreign minister, Talleyrand, but instead they were sent 3 officials Adams called "X,Y, and Z" that demanded $250,000 as a bribe to see Talleyrand.
Convention of 1800
Treaty signed in Paris that ended France's peacetime military alliance with America. Napolean was eager to sign this treaty so he could focus his attention on conquering Europe and perhaps create a New World empire in Lousiana. This ended the "quasi-war" between France and America.
laws which placed a barrier on immigration and raised residency requirements to apply for citizenship
made it a crime to write, print, utter, or publish criticism of the president of government
Virginia and Kentucky Resolutions
Written anonymously by Jefferson and Madison in response to the Alien and Sedition Acts, they declared that states could nullify federal laws that the states considered unconstitutional.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's election changed the direction of the government from Federalist to Democratic- Republican, so it was called a "revolution."
Judiciary Act of 1801
a law that increased the number of federal judges, allowing President John Adams to fill most of the new posts with Federalists
The 16 judges that were added by the Judiciary Act of 1801 that were called this because Adams signed their appointments late on the last day of his administration.
Marbury v. Madison
This case establishes the Supreme Court's power of Judicial Review
1801-1805 Four year war between the American Navy and the North African nation of Tripoli over piracy in the Meditteranean. Jefferson a staunch noninterventionist, reluctantly deployed troops eventually securing a peace treaty with Tripoli
the selling of Lousiana by the French to the United States in 1803 for about $15 million; Napoleon gave this land because he no longer wished to conquer the New World after failing with Santo Domingo, and he also did not wish to provoke the British into forming an alliance with the U.S.; Jefferson was hesitant about the purchase, as he did not believe it was constitutional, however he evetually submitted to the treaties of Congress
Corps of Discovery
Official name of the Lewis and Clark Expedition members
Orders in Council
British laws which led to the War of 1812. Orders-in-council passed in 1807 permitted the impressment of sailors and forbade neutral ships from visiting ports from which Britain was excluded unless they first went to Britain and traded for British goods.
1807 - The American ship Chesapeake refused to allow the British on the Leopard to board to look for deserters. In response, the Leopard fired on the Chesapeake. As a result of the incident, the U.S. expelled all British ships from its waters until Britain issued an apology.
signed by thomas jefferson in 1807 - stop export of all american goods and american ships from sailing for foreign ports
1809 - Replaced the Embargo of 1807. Unlike the Embargo, which forbade American trade with all foreign nations, this act only forbade trade with France and Britain. It did not succeed in changing British or French policy towards neutral ships, so it was replaced by Macon's Bill No. 2.
Marcon's Bill No. 2
Reopened American Trade with all the world, Marcon's Bill dangled what congress hoped was an attractive lure. If either Britian or france repealed its commerical resitrictiions america would resotre its embargo against the nonrepealing nation. Basically admitted that the USA could not survive without forigen trade.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.
War of 1812
Resulted from Britain's support of Indian hostilities along the frontier, interference with American trade, and impressments of American sailors into the British army (1812 - 1815)
Battle of New Orelans
Batle that occured at the end of war of 1812 when US forced defeated the British army' attempt to seize New Orelans, the key to the trade of the Mississippi River Valley. Even though doplomats from both sies were coming to a peace agreement, the news has not yet reached the combatants. Americans won, war ends with Treat of Ghent.
Congress of Vienna
Meeting of representatives of European monarchs called to reestablish the old order after the defeat of Napoleon
Treaty of Ghent
December 24, 1814 - Ended the War of 1812 and restored the status quo. For the most part, territory captured in the war was returned to the original owner. It also set up a commission to determine the disputed Canada/U.S. border.
Meeting by Federalists dissatisfied with the war to draft a new Constitution; resulted in seemingly traitorous Federalist party's collapse
an agreement that limited navel power on the Great lakes for both the United States and British Canada.
Economic program advanced by Henry Clay that included support for a national bank, high tariffs, and internal improvements; emphasized strong role for federal government in the economy.
Tariff of 1816
This protective tariff helped American industry by raising the prices of British manufactured goods, which were often cheaper and of higher quality than those produced in the U.S.
Era of Good Feelings
A name for President Monroe's two terms, a period of strong nationalism, economic growth, and territorial expansion. Since the Federalist party dissolved after the War of 1812, there was only one political party and no partisan conflicts.
Panic of 1819
Economic panic caused by extensive speculation and a decline of Europena demand for American goods along with mismanagement within the Second Bank of the United States. Often cited as the end of the Era of Good Feelings.
Land Act of 1820
authorized a buyer to purchase 80 virgin acres at a minimum of $1.25 per acre in cash, it also brought about cheap transportation and cheap money
This was an attempt to have no more slaves to be brought to Missouri and provided the gradual emancipation of the children of slaves. In the mind of the South, this was a threat to the sectional balance between North and South.
A euphemism for slavery and the economic ramifications of it in the American South. The term aimed to explain away the seeming contradiction of legalized slavery in a country whose Declaration of Independence states that "all men are created equal". It was one of the key causes of the Civil War.
The issue was that Missouri wanted to join the Union as a slave state, therefore unbalancing the Union so there would be more slave states then free states. The compromise set it up so that Maine joined as a free state and Missouri joined as a slave state. Congress also made a line across the southern border of Missouri saying except for the state of Missouri, all states north of that line must be free states or states without slavery.
McCulloch V. Maryland
1819, Cheif justice john marshall limits of the US constition and of the authority of the federal and state govts. one side was opposed to establishment of a national bank and challenged the authority of federal govt to establish one. supreme court ruled that power of federal govt was supreme that of the states and the states couldnt interfere
a person who interprets the constitution in a way that allows the federal government to take actions that the constitution does not specifically forbid it from taking.
Gibbons v. Ogden
Regulating interstate commerce is a power reserved to the federal government
Fletcher V. Peck
arose with a GA legistlatire was swayed by bribary granted 35 million acres in the yazoo river country to private speculators, legislature cancelled it, said constitution forbid state laws imparing contracts
Dartmouth College v. Woodward
1819--New Hampshire had attempted to take over Dartmouth College by revising its colonial charter. The Court ruled that the charter was protected under the contract clause of the U. S. Constitution; upholds the sanctity of contracts.
established border between US and Canada at the 49th parallel; issue of Oregon border put on hold for 10 years
Florida Purchase Treaty
1819 - Under the Adams-Onis Treaty, Spain sold Florida to the U.S., and the U.S. gave up its claims to Texas. gave american southwest to spain
A statement of foreign policy which proclaimed that Europe should not interfere in affairs within the United States or in the development of other countries in the Western Hemisphere.
1824; the Russian tsar fixed the southern boundary of his Alaskan territory at 54°40'
In the election of 1824, none of the candidates were able to secure a majority of the electoral vote, thereby putting the outcome in the hands of the House of Representatives, which elected John Quincy Adams over rival Andrew Jackson. Henry Clay was the Speaker of the House at the time, and he convinced Congress to elect Adams. Adams then made Clay his Secretary of State.
Tariff of Abominations
Tariff passed by Congress in 1828 that favored manufacturing in the North and was hated by the South
practice of rewarding supporters with government jobs
Southerners favored freedom of trade and believed in the authority of states over the federal government. Southerners declared federal protective tariffs null and void.
Compromise Tariff of 1833
It was a new tariff proposed by Henry Clay and John Calhoun that gradually lowered the tariff to the level of the tariff of 1816 This compromise avoided civil war and prolonged the union for another 30 years.
Bill that says Congress is authorized to use the military against belligerent states. Is nullified by South Carolina.
Indian Removal Act
removed indians from southern states and put them on reservations in the midwest
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.
Black Hawk War
Chief Black Hawk of Sauk tribe, led rebellion against US; started in Illinois and spread to Wisconsin Territory; 200 Sauk and Fox ppl murdered; tribes removed to areas west of Mississippi
Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"
a 19th century minor political party in the United States. It strongly opposed Freemasonry, and was founded as a single-issue party, aspiring to become a major party
A term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
it required that all public lands be purchased with "hard" money
Panic of 1837
First Depression in American history; Banks lost money, people lost faith in banks, and country lost faith in President Martin van Buren; lasted four years; due to large state debts, expansion of credit by numerous, unfavorable balance of crop failures, and frenzy that was caused by the avalanche of land speculation.
a site where about 400 defeated, surrounded, and surrendered americans were slaughtered by santa anna. "remember goliad" became a war cry soon thereafter.
Ancient Order of Hibernians
A semisecret society founded in Ireland to fight rapacious landlords, served in America as a benevolent society, aiding the downtrodden.
a society for irish miners who engaged in a violent confrontation with pennsylvania mining companies in the 19th century
a political organization within the Democratic Party in New York city (late 1800's and early 1900's) seeking political control by corruption and bossism
Group of prejudice people who formed a political party during the time when the KKK grew. Anti-Catholics and anti-foreign. They were also known as the American Party. Nativists
a book written by Maria Monk explaining of how she was pretending to be a nun and saw sin in the inside of Catholicism
the liability of a firm's owners for no more than the capital they have invested in the firm
Commonwealth v. Hunt
(1842) a landmark ruling of the MA Supreme Court establishing the legality of labor unions and the legality of union workers striking if an employer hired non-union workers.
Cult of domesticity
idealized view of women & home; women, self-less caregiver for children, refuge for husbands
Second quarter of 1800s. Long, narrow, wooden ships with tall masts and enormous sails. Unequalled in speed and were used for trade, especially for transporting perishable products from distant countries like China and between the eastern and western United States.
express mail carried by relays of riders on horseback
Dramatic increase btwn 1820 and 1850 in the exchange of goods and services in market transactions. Resulted from thee combo impact of the increased output of farms and factories, the entrepreneurial activities of traders and merchants, and the dev of a transportation network of roads, canals and RR.
The Age of Reason
A book by Thomas Paine in which he critiqued organized religion.
the form of theological rationalism that believes in God on the basis of reason without reference to revelation
Secound Great Awakening
-this was another revival of religous feeling.
-protestant preachers lead this revolution
-Many new religions and churches were made becuase of this period. A reaction against the growing liberalism in religion.
Western New York where New England puritans settled had sermons preached "hellfire and damnation".
Maine Law of 1851
prohibited the manufacture and sale of alcohol. A dozen other states followed Maine's lead, though most statutes proved ineffective and were repealed within the decade.
Woman's Rights Convention at Seneca Falls
Gathering of feminist activists in Seneca Falls, New York, where Elizabeth Cady Stanton read her "Declaration of Sentiments," stating that "all men and women are created equal".
This was a society that focusted on Utopian Socialism (Communism). It was started by Robert Owens but failed because everybody did not share a fair load of the work.q
An experiment in Utopian socialism; it lasted for six years (1841-1847) in New Roxbury; Massachusetts. 20 Intellectuals.
A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.
a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States
a nineteenth-century movement in the Romantic tradition, which held that every individual can reach ultimate truths through spiritual intuition, which transcends reason and sensory experience. Movment came from the liberalization of the puritain theology.
The American Scholar
Emerson's lecture at Harvard; encouraged American authors to develop their own literary techniques instead of using European ideas
a public hall for lectures and concerts
Nat Turner's Rebellion
Rebellion in which Nat Turner led a group of slaves through virginia in an unsuccessful attempt to overthrow and kill planter families
The American Colonization Society
organization founded in 1817 by antislavery reformers that called for gradual emancipation and removal of freed blacks to Africa
An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.
Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the world
written by david walker, his pamphlet was a clear call to the southern slaves to rise up
Narrative of the life of Frederick Douglass
The Mason and Dixon line was perceived as a divider between free and slave states before the Civil War
Strict rule passed by prosouthern Congressmen in 1836 to prohibit all discussion of slavery in the House of Representatives
Tariff of 1842
A protective tariff signed by President John Tyler, it raised the general level of duties to about where they had been before the Compromise Tariff of 1833.
The result of the conflict over The Caroline ship, which consisted of angry Americans and Canadians, mostly lumberjacks, began moving into the disputed Aroostook River region, causing a violent brawl.
a policy of imperialism rationalized as inevitable (as if granted by God)
Fifty-four forty or fight
slogan used in the 1844 presidential election as a call for us annexation of the oregon territory
A former political party in the United States; formed in 1839 to oppose the practice of slavery; merged with the Free Soil Party in 1848
Democratic bill that reversed the high rates of tariffs imposed by the Whig-backed "Black Tariff" of 1842 under president John Tyler
Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo
Treaty that ended the Mexican War, granting the U.S. control of Texas, New Mexico, and California in exchange for $15 million
Anti-slavery whigs who opposed both the Texas annexation and the Mexican War on moral grounds.
Dispute over whether any Mexican territory that America won during the Mexican War should be free or a slave territory. A representative named David Wilmot introduced an amendment stating that any territory acquired from Mexico would be free. This amendment passed the House twice, but failed to ever pass in Senate. The "Wilmot Proviso", as it became known as, became a symbol of how intense dispute over slavery was in the U.S.
Free soil party
Formed in 1847 - 1848, dedicated to opposing slavery in newly acquired territories such as Oregon and ceded Mexican territory.
Seventh of March speech
Webster's last great speech to the US Senate which called upon his fellow senators to give their full support to the Compromise of 1850
Compromise of 1850
Forestalled the Civil War by instating the Fugitive Slave Act , banning slave trade in DC, admitting California as a free state, splitting up the Texas territory, and instating popular sovereignty in the Mexican Cession
1850 - Treaty between U.S. and Great Britain agreeing that neither country would try to obtain exclusive rights to a canal across the Isthmus of Panama. Abrogated by the U.S. in 1881.
a declaration (1854) issued from Ostend, Belgium, by the U.S. ministers to England, France, and Spain, stating that the U.S. would be justified in seizing Cuba if Spain did not sell it to the U.S.
Treaty of Wanghia
The first diplomatic agreement between China and America in history, signed on July 3, 1844. Since America signed as a nation interested in trade instead of colonization, it was rewarded with extraordinary amount of trading power.
Treaty of Kanagawa
An agreement by Japan with America, that Japan would open two ports to trade with the U.S. and would help shipwrecked U.S. sailors
purchase of land from mexico in 1853 that established the present U.S.-mexico boundary
This Act set up Kansas and Nebraska as states. Each state would use popular sovereignty to decide what to do about slavery. People who were proslavery and antislavery moved to Kansas, but some antislavery settlers were against the Act. This began guerrilla warfare.
Impending Crisis of the South
Hinton R Helper, Stats on salvery and how it was acutally hurting whites in south
New England Emigrant Aid Company
anti slavery organization that sent thousands to Kansas to forestall Southern interests there
Pro-slave constitution that got voted in for Kansas after anti-slavery people boycotted the election
A sequence of violent events involving abolitionists and pro-Slavery elements that took place in Kansas-Nebraska Territory. The dispute further strained the relations of the North and South, making civil war imminent.
Panic of 1857
Economic downturn caused by overspeculation of western lands, railroads, gold in California, grain. Mostly affected northerners, who called for higher tariffs and free homesteads
Tariff of 1857
Lowered duties on imports in response to a high Treasury surplus and pressure from Southern farmers.
1858 Senate Debate, Lincoln forced Douglas to debate issue of slavery, Douglas supported pop-sovereignty, Lincoln asserted that slavery should not spread to territories, Lincoln emerged as strong Republican candidate
Idea that any territory could ban slavery by simply refusing to pass laws supporting it
Idea authored by Stephen Douglas that claimed slavery could only exist when popular sovereignty said so
John Brown's scheme to invade the South with armed slaves, backed by sponsoring, northern abolitionists; seized the federal arsenal; Brown and remnants were caught by Robert E. Lee and the US Marines; Brown was hangedC
Constitutional Union Party
also known as the "do-nothings" or "Old Gentlemen's" party; 1860 election; it was a middle of the road group that feared for the Union- consisted mostly of Whigs and Know-Nothings, met in Baltimore and nominated John Bell from Tennessee as candidate for presidency-the slogan for this candidate was "The Union, the Constitution, and the Enforcement of the laws."
These amendements to the Constitution were designed to appease the south by prohibiting slavery north of 36, 30' but allowed protection south of this line. It also allowed future states to enter with or without slavery regardless of their position north or south.
Federal fort in the harbor of Charleston, South Carolina; the confederate attack on the fort marked the start of the Civil War
In 1861 the Confederacy sent emissaries James Mason to Britain and John Slidell to France to lobby for recognition. A Union ship captured both men and took them to Boston as prisonners. The British were angry and Lincoln ordered their release
Morrill Tariff Act
This was an act passed by Congress in 1861 to meet the cost of the war. It raised the taxes on shipping from 5 to 10 percent however later needed to increase to meet the demanding cost of the war. This was just one the new taxes being passed to meet the demanding costs of the war. Although they were still low to today's standers they still raked in millions of dollars.
Name for Union paper money not backed by gold or silver. Value would fluctuate depending on status of the war (plural)
National Banking System
(AL) , Authorized by Congress in 1863 to establish a standard bank currency. Banks that joined the system could buy bonds and issue paper money. First significant step toward a national bank. (North)
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
U.S. Sanitary Commission
not only organized women to serve at the front, it also funneled medicine and supplies to badly overtaxed hospitals during the Civil War. It also helped spread ideas about the importance of sanitary conditions in hospitals and clinics and probably contributed to the relative decline of disease in the war.
1st real battle, Confederate victory, Washingtonian spectators gather to watch battle, Gen. Jackson stands as Stonewall and turns tide of battle in favor of Confederates, realization that war is not going to be quick and easy for either side
a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. The operation, commanded by Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan, was an amphibious turning movement intended to capture the Confederate capital of Richmond by circumventing the Confederate States Army in northern Virginia. McClellan was initially successful against the equally cautious General Joseph E. Johnston, but the emergence of General Robert E. Lee changed the character of the campaign and turned it into a humiliating Union defeat.
Second Battle of Bull Run
Lee and Pope fought and Lee came out victorious and then continued onto MD in hope of striking a blow that would not only encourage foreign intervention but also seduce the still wavering Border State and its sisters from the Union
the first major battle in the American Civil War to take place on Northern soil. It was the bloodiest single-day battle in American history, with almost 23,000 casualties. After this "win" for the North, Lincoln announced the Emancipation Proclamation
issued by Abraham Lincoln on September 22, 1862, it declared that all slaves in the rebellious Confederate states would be free
General Ambrose Burnside replaced McClellan and he attacked Lee in 1862 here while suffering immense losses (more than 2 soldiers on Union side killed for every one Confederate)
The most violent battle of the American Civil War and is frequently cited as the war's turning point, fought from July 1 - July 3, 1863.
a 3-minute address by Abraham Lincoln during the American Civil War (November 19, 1963) at the dedication of a national cemetery on the site of the Battle of Gettysburg
Fort Henry and Fort Donelson
Two forts in Tennessee that were forced to surrender by General Grant (earned him the nickname "Unconditional Surrender" Grant)
Grant's best fought campaign, this siege ended in the seizure of the Mississippi River by the Union
Congressional Committee on the Conduct of the War
Dominated by radical Republicans who resented the expansion of presidential power durign wartime.
a group of northern Democrats who opposed abolition and sympathized with the South during the Civil War
included all of the Republicans and the war Democrats. It excluded the copperheads and peace Democrats. It was formed out of fear of the republican party losing control. It was responsible for nominating Lincoln.
Union troops launched this with about 100,000 men against 70,000 Confederates (fighting for 10 days) Unions forced Confederates north of Richmond
the Virginia town where Robert E. Lee surrendered to Ulysses S. Grant in 1865, ending the Civil War
Reform Bill of 1867
Granted suffrage to all male British citizens, dramatically expanding the electorate. The success of the American democratic experiment, reinforced by the Union victory in the Civil War, was used as one of the arguments in favor of the Bill. (509)
1865 - Agency set up to aid former slaves in adjusting themselves to freedom. It furnished food and clothing to needy blacks and helped them get jobs
10 percent reconstruction plan
Made by Abraham Lincoln that once a certain amount of people recognized the Union and slavery, the state would be allowed back into the Union
1864 Proposed far more demanding and stringent terms for reconstruction; required 50% of the voters of a state to take the loyalty oath and permitted only non-confederates to vote for a new state constitution; Lincoln refused to sign the bill, pocket vetoing it after Congress adjourned.
Black Codes after civil war
Laws designed to regulate the affairs of the emancipated blacks, much as they did in pre-civil war era.
Pacific Railroad Act
Called for the building of the Transcontinental Railroad to stretch across America connecting California and the rest of America.
Civil Rights Bill
vetoed by Johnson, but passed over his veto, it conferred citizenship on Blacks, leading to the 14th Amendment
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
It divided the South into 5 military districts, each commanded by a union general and policed by Union soldiers. It also required that states wishing to be re-admitted into the Union had to ratify the 14th Amendment, and that states' constitutions had to allow former adult male slaves to vote.
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
Woman's Loyal League
Women's organization formed to help bring about an end to the Civil War and encourage Congress to pass a constitutional amendment to prohibiting slavery.
Tenture of Office Act
required Senate approval for the President to remove a cabinet officer
1867 Seward's Folly
Panic of 1873
Four year economic depression caused by overspeculation on railroads and western lands, and worsened by Grant's poor fiscal response (refusing to coin silver
1870s - 1890s; time period looked good on the outside, despite the corrupt politics & growing gap between the rich & poor
Compromise of 1877
Unwritten deal that settled the 1876 presidential election contest between Rutherford Hayes (Rep) and Samuel Tilden (Dem.) Hayes was awarded the presidency in exchange for the permanent removal of federal troops from the South.
Civil Rights Act of 1875
Prohibited discrimination against blacks in public place, such as inns, amusement parks, and on public transportation. Declared unconstitutional by the Supreme Court.
1882 Chinese Exclusion Act
Congress banned entry to all Chinese except students, teachers, merchants, tourists, and government officials. In 1892 congress extended law for 10 more years. In 1902 Chinese immigration restricted indefinitely and not repealed until 1943.
Passed in 1883, an Act that created a federal civil service so that hiring and promotion would be based on merit rather than patronage.
1892 steelworker strike near Pittsburgh against the Carnegie Steel Company. Ten workers were killed in a riot when "scab" labor was brought in to force an end to the strike.
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
acquiring control of all the steps required to change raw materials into finished product
Sherman Anti-Trust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
a company that hires only union members
Immigrants who came to the United States during and after the 1880s; most were from southern and eastern Europe.
those who believed tha religion had to be adapted to science and that the bible was to be mined for ethical values rather than for its literal truth
Booker T. Washington built this school to educate black students on learning how to support themselves and prosper
state educational institutions built with the benefit of federally donated lands
the attribute of accepting the facts of life and favoring practicality and literal truth
Journalism that exploits, distorts, or exaggerates the news to create sensations and attract readers
National American Woman Suffrage Association
militant suffragist organization founded by Elizabeth Cady Stanton and Susan B. Anthony
World's Columbian Exposition
1893; World's Fair held in Chicago in 1893 to celebrate the 400th anniversary of Christopher Columbus's arrival in the New World
Battle of Little Bighorn
In 1876, Indian leaders Sitting Bull and Crazy Horse defeated Custer's troops who tried to force them back on to the reservation, Custer and all his men died
Dawes Severalty Act
Bill that promised Indians tracts of land to farm in order to assimilate them into white culture. The bill was resisted, uneffective, and disastrous to Indian tribes
Mechanization of agriculture
The development of engine-driven machines, like the combine, which helped to dramatically increase the productivity of land in the 1870s and 1880s. This process contributed to the consolidation of agricultural business that drove many family farms out of existence
formed by farmers, wanted a reduced tariff, a graduated income tax, government control of the railroads, extension of the money supply (free silver), included Blacks (which hurt them)
Gold Standard Act
Signed by McKinley in 1900 and stated that all paper money must be backed only by gold. This meant that the government had to hold large gold reserves in case people wanted to trade in their money. Also eliminated silver coins in circulation.
Big Sister Policy
Aimed to rally Latin American nations behind the United States and open Latin American markets to American traders.
reconciliation between the US and Britain. the new Anglo-American cordiality became a cornerstone of both nations and foreign policies as the 20th century started
1890 tariff that raised protective tariff levels by nearly 50%, making them the highest tariffs on imports in the United States history
Cuban insurgents who sought freedom from colonial Spanish rule. Their destructive tactics threatened American economic interests in Cuban plantations and railroads.
This Amendment was drafter by Henry M. Teller which declared that the US had no desire for control in Cuba & pledged the US would leave the island alone.
The First United States Volunteer Calvary, a mixure of Ivy League athletes and western frontiermen, volunteered to fight in the Spanish-American War. Enlisted by Theodore Roosevelt, they won many battles in Florida and enlisted in the invasion army of Cuba.
gave the US direct control over and power to set up a government in Puerto Rico
Legislation that severely restricted Cuba's sovereignty and gave the US the right to intervene if Cuba got into trouble
Determined that inhabitants of U.S. territories had some, but not all, of the rights of U.S. citizens.
Open Door Note
Message delivered by John Hay in the summer of 1899 to the nations of the world, begging them to respect Chinese rights and influence in the spirit of fair competition.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
1908 - Japan / U.S. agreement in which both nations agreed to respect each other's territories in the Pacific and to uphold the Open Door policy in China.
Initiative- Directly propose legislation
Referendum- Laws on ballot for aproval
Australian secret ballot
TR's Square Deal for Labor
Control corporations, protect consumer, conserve natural resources
(1903) gave the Interstate Commerce Commission more power to control railroads and could fine those who gave and accepted rebates
Meat Inspection Act
Law that authorized the Secretary of Agriculture to order meat inspections and condemn any meat product found unfit for human consumption.
Taft Dollar Diplomacy
Use money to lobby on the world stage for the good of America.
bill placed on high tariffs on many imports (Taft betrayed the promise of his campaign to lower tariffs)
Woodrow Wilson's domestic policy that, promoted antitrust modification, tariff revision, and reform in banking and currency matters.
Roosevelt's progressive political policy that favored heavy government intervention in order to assure social justice
Pushed through Congress by Woodrow Wilson, this 1913 tariff reduced average tariff duties by almost 15% and established a graduated income tax
Federal Reserve Act
a 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
Federal Trade Commission Act
This law authorized a presidentially-appointed commission to oversee industries engaged in interstate commerce, such as the meatpackers. The commissioners were expected to crush monopolies at the source.
Clayton Anti-Trust Act
New antitrust legislation constructed to remedy deficiencies of the Sherman Antitrust Act, namely, it's effectiveness against labor unions
Companies that hold a majority of another company's stock in order to control the management of that company. Can be used to establish a monopoly.
Workingmen's Compensation Act
established an all-purpose protection program for Federal civilian employees and their dependents in the event of injury or death
1916 law that established 8 hour workday for railroad workers in order to avert a national strike
(WW) 1916, Promised Philippine independence. Given freedom in 1917, their economy grew as a satellite of the U.S. Filipino independence was not realized for 30 years.
gave women the right to vote
the war aims outlined by President Wilson in 1918, which he believed would promote lasting peace; called for self-determination, freedom of the seas, free trade, end to secret agreements, reduction of arms and a league of nations
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act
Provided federal funding for maternity and child care, sponsored by Morris Sheppard
47 day battle whose objective was to cut German rail lines
League of Nations
International organization founded in 1919 to promote world peace and cooperation but greatly weakened by the refusal of the United States to join. It proved ineffectual in stopping aggression by Italy, Japan, and Germany in the 1930s. (763)
isolationists senators who opposed any treaty ending world war one that had a league of nations
Treaty of Versailles
the treaty imposed on Germany by the Allied powers in 1920 after the end of World War I which demanded exorbitant reparations from the Germans
Sheppard-Towner Maternity Act
Provided federal funding for maternity and child care, sponsored by Morris Sheppard
When communists came to power. This spawned a tiny communist party in America.
Intense fear of communism and other politically radical ideas
Criminal Syndicalism Laws
(1919-1920)Passed by many states during the Red Scare of 1919-1920, these nefarious laws outlawed the mere advocacy of violence to secure social change. Stump speakers for the International Workers of the World, or IWW, were special targets.
A business-oriented approach to worker relations popular among firms in the 1920s to defeat unionization. Managers sought to strengthen their communication with workers and to offer benefits like pensions and insurance. They insisted on an "open shop" in contrast to the mandatory union membership through the "closed shop" that many labor activists had demanded in the strike after World War I.
The south where Protestant Fundamentalism thrived.
Immigration Act of 1924
Quotas for foreigners were cut from 3 percent to 2 percent
Eighteenth Amendment & Volstead Act
The legal abolition of alcohol to make the world "safe for hypocrisy"
some who commits crimes for profit (especially one who obtains money by fraud or extortion)
Still remained a vibrant force in American spiritual life after the Scopes Monkey Trial.
A movment that sough to eliminate wasted motion, Frederick W. taylor, Henry Ford Advent of the gasoline age, radio, air plane
United Negro Improvement Association
Promoted the resettlement of blacks in their own "African homeland".
Agreed to nail wide-open the Open Door in China
Was signed on August 27, 1928 by the United States, France, the United Kingdom, Germany, Italy, Japan, and a number of other countrys. The pact renounced aggressive war, prohibiting the use of war as "an instrument of national policy" except in matters of self-defence.
Fordney-Mcumber Tariff Law
Glib lobbyists boosted the tariff from 27% to 38.5%
Teapot Dome scandal
symbol of government corruption; government oil reserves were secretly leased to oil companies in exchange for financial compensation
Pushed up agricultural prices by allowing the governemnt to buy up surpluses
Dawes Plan of 1924
It rescheduled German reparations payments and allowed America to give further private loans to Germany. Complicated debt system and eventually nations could not pay the USA back.
Agricultural Marketing Act
It set up a Federal Farm board with a fund of half a billion dollars at its disposal. Money was lent to farm organizations seeking to buy, sell and store agricultural surpluses.
Turned out to be the highest protective tariff in the nation's peacetime history. Average was 60%.
October 29, 1929 when 16,410,030 shares of stocks were sold. Losses were unbelievable. 40billion in paper values lost.
shanty-towns that housed many who had lost everything. Shelters were built of old boxes and other discards.
Reconstruction Finance Corporation
It was designed to provide indirect relief by assisting insurance companies, banks, agricultural organizations, railroads, even state governments.
Norris-La Guardia Anti-Injunction Act
Indirect benefits for labor during the great depression. This was highly debated.
Glass-Stegall Banking Reform Act
This measure provided for the Federal Deposit Insurance Corporation which insured individual deposits up to $5,000. This ended the epidemic of bank failures. Recovery, relief, reform.
Civilian Conservation Corps
This law provided employment for about 3 million uniformed young men. Work included reforestation, firefighting, flood control, and swamp drainage. Recovery
Members hastily cranked out an unprecedented amout of legislation some was derived from earlier progressivism but mostly tired to deal with the emergency.
Emergency Banking Relief act of 1933
Gave the president the power to regulate banking transactions and foreign exchange.
Fire side chats
FDR and Gold Standard
Took the nation off the gold standard, ordering all gold to be surrened to the Treasury in exchange for paper currency. His goal was to create inflation.
AAA (Agricultural adjustment act)
Made millions of dollars available to help farmers meet their mortgages.
HOLC (home owners' Loan Corporation)
Designed to refiance mortgages on nofarm homes. This caused loyalty to the demorcatic party-middle-class homeowners.
CWA (civil works administartion)
Designed to create temporary jobs during the emergency.
National Recovery Administartion (NRA)
Designed to assist industry, labor, and the unemployed.
Agricultural Adjustment Administration
Established to establish "parity prices" for basic commodities. This was the price set for a product that gave it the same real value that it was at from 1909 to 1914. This would eliminate depressing surpluese by paying their farmers to reduce crop acreage.
Region of the Great Plains that experienced a drought in 1930 lasting for a decade, leaving many farmers without work or substantial wages.
TVA Tennessee Vally Authority
Determined how much it cost to produce electricity
Social Security Act
To provide security for old age, specified categories of retired workers who were to receive regular payments from washington.
Created a powerful new National Labor Relations Board for adminsitartive purposes. Wagner act was a major milestone for American workers. Bargained Collectivley through represenations of their own choice.
Fair Labor Standards Act
Industires involved in interstate commerce were to set up minimum-wage and maximum-hour levels.
Congress of Industrial Organiziations
Labor union that broke off from the AF of L. 4million members including 200,000 blacks.
FDR's plan to expand the supreme court.
The use of government spending and fiscal policy to geting the economy moving and encourage consumer spending.
London Economic Conference
The londoon Conference hoped to organize an attack on the global depression. They wanted to stabilize currency so an exchange-rate could be set for the revival of world trade.
Good Neighbor Policy
Roosevelt's attempt to usher in a new era of friendliness. Roosevelt was very well liked in Latin America, at the expense of some American bond holders.
Reciprocal Trade Agreements
The Act was designed to raise American exports and was aimed at both relief and recovery. it helped reverse the high-tariff policy.
Johnson Debt Default
Prevented debt dodging nations from borrowing further in the United States.
Nazi Hitler and teh Fascist Mussolini allied themselves under this title
Neutrality Acts of 1935, 1936, and 1937
No American would sail on a belligerent ship, sell or transposrt munitions to a belligerent, or make loans
Abraham Lincoln Brigade
Three thousand young men and women who went to spain to fight as volunteers
President Roosevlt's speech that called for "positive endeavors" to "quarantine" the agressors- call for economic embargos
Gave dictators a little in hope of staying out of a war
nonaggression treaty between the Soviet Union and Hitler, made German invasion on Poland easier
Neutrality Act of 1939
Said that European democracies could buy war materials on a "cash-and-carry basis"
(Night of the Broken Glass) November 9, 1938, when mobs throughout Germany destroyed Jewish property and terrorized Jews.
War Refugee Board
Federal agency created in 1944 to try to help people threatened with murder by the Nazis
lending/leasing American arms to reeling democracies provided that they be returned later; basically a stray from neutrality, which Hitler realized and began attacking U.S. ships
Outlined the aspirations of the democracies for a better world at war's end
"getting Germany first"
Executive Order No. 9066
authorized the internment of tens of thousands of American citizens of Japanese ancestry and resident aliens from Japan. Roosevelt's Executive Order 9066, dated February 19, 1942, gave the military broad powers to ban any citizen from a fifty- to sixty-mile-wide coastal area stretching from Washington state to California and extending inland into southern Arizona.
War Production Board
During WWII, FDR established it to allocated scarce materials, limited or stopped the production of civilian goods, and distributed contracts among competing manufacturers
Office of Price Administration
WWII Office that installs price controls on essential items to prevent inflation
National War Labor Board
helped resolve labor disputes that might slow down war production
Smith-Connally Anti-Strike Act
This authorized the federal government to seize industries and made strikes against government operated industry a criminal offense
WAACs WAVES SPARs
Women in arms
United States labor agents recruited thousands of farm and railroad workers from Mexico. The program stimulated emigration for Mexico.
Fair Employment Practices Commission
FDR issued this committee in 1941 to enforce the policy of prohibiting employment-related discrimination practices by federal agencies, unions, and companies involved in war-related work It guaranteed the employment of 2 million black workers in the war factories.
Congress of Racial Equality
CORE was a civil rights organization. They were famous for freedom rides which drew attention to Southern barbarity, leading to the passing of civil rights legislation.
Battle of Midway
U.S. naval victory over the Japanese fleet in June 1942, in which the Japanese lost four of their best aircraft carriers. It marked a turning point in World War II.
June 6, 1944 - Led by Eisenhower, over a million troops (the largest invasion force in history) stormed the beaches at Normandy and began the process of re-taking France. The turning point of World War II.
Conference where Truman, Atlee and Stalin complete post-war agreements. Trinity test is successful during this time
It outlaed the "closed" (all-union) shop, made unions liable for damages that resulted from jurisdictional disputes among themselves.
Employment Act of 1946
making it the government policy to promote maxium employment, production, and purchasing power.
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
In 1947, William Levitt used mass production techniques to build inexpensive homes in surburban New York to help relieve the postwar housing shortage. Levittown became a symbol of the movement to the suburbs in the years after WWII.
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
1945 Meeting with US president FDR, British Prime Minister(PM) Winston Churchill, and and Soviet Leader Stalin during WWII to plan for post-war
A conflict that was between the US and the Soviet Union. The nations never directly confronted eachother on the battlefield but deadly threats went on for years.
an organization of independent states formed in 1945 to promote international peace and security
Nuremberg war crimes trial
(1946) Highly publicized proceedings against former Nazi leaders for war crimes and crimes against humanity as part of the Allies denazification program in postwar Germany. The trials led to several executions and long prison sentences.
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
a foreign policy strategy advocated by George Kennan that called for the United States to isolate the Soviet Union, "contain" its advances, and resist its enroachments by peaceful means if possible, but by force if neccesary. During Trumans presidency
Truman asked for $400 million to bolster Greece and Turkey to resist communism
Called for spending 12.5 billion over four years in sixteen cooperating countries. It was made deliberatly hard for the USSR to accept.
An alliance made to defend one another if they were attacked by any other country; US, England, France, Canada, Western European countries. Considerd an attack on one as an attack on all.
Un-American Activities Committee
A committee to investigate communism--had tremendous power, threatened witnesses, used smear tactics, ultimately found very few communists
Truman's Fair Deal
Called for imporved housing, full employment, higher minimum wage, better farm price supports, new TVAs and the extension of Social Security.
National Security Council Memorandum Number 68. A document that pushed for a large build up of the U.S military. It allowed the U.S to quickly build up its military for the Korean conflict.
The conflict between Communist North Korea and Non-Communist South Korea. The United Nations (led by the United States) helped South Korea.
The Eisenhower Era
He defeated Adlai Stevenson in the 1952 U.S. presidential election. Ike, as he was popularly known, was the second president to have televised press conferences. His foreign policy was dominated by the Cold War. Most domestic affairs were left to his cabinet, though Eisenhower promoted an act which started the Interstate Highway System. He suffered both a heart attack and mild stroke during his presidency, which ended on January 20, 1961.
The Feminine Mystique
Written by feminist Betty Friedan. It launched the modern women's movement. It was read by millions of able, educated women.
Became a rite of passage for mililons of young people around the world, from Japan to working-class Liverpool, England.
Given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. Said to have saved his career from a campaign contributions scandal.`
1950 Korean War End
Korea remained divided at the thirty-eighth parallel. Cold war still continued on.
unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)
Laws that Southern blacks dealt with this included an array of separate socail arrangements that kept them insulated from whites, economically inferior, and politically powerless. (951)
Montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Brown V. Board of Education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
Program which apprehended and returned some one million illegal immigrants to Mexico
Student Non-violent Coordination Committee
A group of southern black students who wanted to give more focus on the civil rights movement.
Federal Highway Act of 1956
Eisenhower created this huge public works project. The former general believed that these roads were essential to national defense.
Policy of Boldness
foreign policy objective of Dwight Eisenhower's Secretary of State, John Foster Dulles, who believed in changing the containment strategy to one that more directly engaged the Soviet Uninon and attempted to roll back communist influence around the world.
Showed that the nuclear sledgehammer was too heavy a weapon to wield in such a minor crisis. (959)
Battle of Dien Bien Phu
1954, the communists beat the French at this battle, forcing the French to abandon their colony
Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
The world's first space satellite. This meant the Soviet Union had a missile powerful enough to reach the US.
Nixon extolled the virutes of American consumerism over Soviet economic planning. (964)
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
In 1961, the Soviet Union built a high barrier to seal off their sector of Berlin in order to stop the flow of refugees out of the Soviet zone of Germany. The wall was torn down in 1989.
European Economic Community
The free-trade area that evolved into the European Union.
Bay of Pigs Invasion
in 1961, an attempt by Cuban exiles in southern Cuba to overthrow the Cuban socialist government of Fidel Castro; the effort was funded by the U.S. and was famously disastrous
Cuban Missile Crisis
an international crisis in October 1962, the closest approach to nuclear war at any time between the U.S. and the USSR. When the U.S. discovered Soviet nuclear missiles on Cuba, President John F. Kennedy demanded their removal and announced a naval blockade of the island; the Soviet leader Khrushchev acceded to the U.S. demands a week later.
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
Voter Education Project
project of the SNCC where volunteers went to rural areas in the Deep South to register African Americans to vote; began with Robert Moses
March on Washington
held in 1963 to show support for the Civil Rights Bill in Congress. Martin Luther King gave his famous "I have a dream..." speech. 250,000 people attended the rally
Civil Rights Act of 1964
This act made racial, religious, and sex discrimination by employers illegal and gave the government the power to enforce all laws governing civil rights, including desegregation of schools and public places. Created this in the wave of Kennedy's assination.
programs intended to make up for past discrimination by helping minority groups and women gain access to jobs and opportunities
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
In 1964, when blacks and whites together challenged segregation and led a massive drive to register blacks to vote.
Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party
Group that sent its own delegates to the Democratic National Convention in 1964 to protest discrimination against black voters in Mississippi
(1967) Short conflict between Egypt and her allies against Israel won by Israel; Israel took over the Golan Heights , The West Bank of the Jordan River; and the Sanai Peninsula.
Students for a Democratic Society
Founded in 1962, the SDS was a popular college student organization that protested shortcomings in American life, notably racial injustice and the Vietnam War. It led thousands of campus protests before it split apart at the end of the 1960s.
(1969) Uprising in support of equal rights for gay people sparked by an assault by off-duty police officers at a gay bar in New York. The rebellion led to rise in activism and militancy within the gay community and furthered the sexual revolution of the late 1960s. (998)
that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
the U.S. will not do the majority of fighting in countries threatened by communism, will provide aid
My Lai Massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
China and the Soviet Union were clashing over their own interpretations of Marxism, and Nixon seized this as a chance for the U.S. to relax tensions.
an independent federal agency established to coordinate programs aimed at reducing pollution and protecting the environment
A day created in 1970 about celebrating and caring for the Earth
Nixon's plan to persuade conservative southern white voters away from the Democratic party
War Powers Act
a law enacted in 1973, limiting a presidents right to send troops into battle without consulting congress.
1972; Nixon feared loss so he approved the Commission to Re-Elect the President to spy on and espionage the Democrats. A security gaurd foiled an attempt to bug the Democratic National Committe Headquarters, exposing the scandal. Seemingly contained, after the election Nixon was impeached and stepped down
"smoking gun" tape
blank tape where Nixon had erased all evidence. this is the only evidence that links him to the watergate crimes.
Equal Rights Amendment
constitutional amendment passed by Congress but never ratified that would have banned discrimination on the basis of gender
On July 15, 1979, Carter gave this nationally-televised address in which he identified what he believed to be a "crisis of confidence" among the American people.
(JEC) 1979, Second Strategic Arms Limitations Talks. A second treaty was signed on June 18, 1977 to cut back the weaponry of the U.S. and the U.S.S.R. because it was getting too competitive. Set limits on the numbers of weapons produced. Not passed by the Senate as retaliation for U.S.S.R.'s invasion of Afghanistan, and later superseded by the START treaty.
negotiations between the United States and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics opened in 1969 in Helsinki designed to limit both countries' stock of nuclear weapons
Iranian Hostage Crisis
In 1979, Iranian fundamentalists seized the American embassy in Tehran and held fifty-three American diplomats hostage for over a year. The Iranian hostage crisis weaked the Carter presidency; the hostages were finally released on January 20, 1981, the day Ronald Reagan became president.