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Flashcards for Chapter 21


this country entered the twentieth century a greatly transformed country after the Meiji Period


an exclusive, elite group


Japan carried out her expansionist policy at the expense of _________

Sun Yat-sen

organizer of Nationalist party in China who led revolt against the Manchu Dynasty

Chiang Kaishek

took control of China after Sun Yat-sen's death; began to reunite China under a national government

Mao Zedong

led radical Communist forces against Kaishek's conservative forces


Japan seized this entire province of China in 1931


second major nation to successfully defy the League of Nations


Mussolini's invaded this African country in 1935


these forbade the sale of certain materials to Italy

Third Reich

Hitler began laying the foundation for this, a new Germa empire


Hitler wished to provide the German people with this, "living space"


fortifying this region was one task that remained before Hitler could actively begin building his empire

Rome-Berlin Axis (1936)

alliance between Germany and Italy

Anti-Comintern Pact

agreement between Germany and Japan, which was on the surface was against communist

(General Francisco) Franco

Fascist followers of ___________ revolted against Spain's republican government


this country experienced a civil war in which other nations took part in shaping the outcome


first area of Europe that Hitler sought to add to his Reich


after Hitler gained Austria, he turned his attention to this country


most of the Germans in Czechoslovakia lived in this region

(Neville) Chamberlain

primer minister of Great Britain, favored appeasement

(Edouard) Daladier

prime minister of France

Munich Conference

meeting of Britain, France, and Germany where Hitler was given the region of Sudenteland


buying off an aggressor by territorial concession

(Winston) Churchill

British prime minister who filled British people with hope


Hitler's invasion of this country began World War I

Soviet Union

to increase their effectiveness against Hitler, Britain and France tried to reach a military agreement with the __ ____

Pact of Steel

while the Allies negotiated with the Soviet Union, Hitler signed this with Mussolini

Nazi-Soviet Pact

Hitler's non-aggression pact with the Soviet Union

September 1, 1939

on ___________ __ , ______ Hitler invaded Poland, beginning World War II


Germany's armored divisions


Germany's superior air force


German for lightning war, Germany used this strategy during battle


"sitting war", or "phony war"


this country surrendered to Hitler after only a few hours of fighting

fifth columnists

Germany was greatly aided by these, individuals within a country who secretly aid enemy

(Vidkun) Quisling

Norwegian fifth columnist; his name is synonymous with traitor


at this city, Allied soldiers escaped from the Germans over to Britain

(Marshal Henri) Petain

headed French government which surrendered to Germany

(Charles) de Gaulle

leader of Free French movement who continued to wage war against the Axis powers


Mussolini tried to invade this African country but failed

(General Erwin) Rommel

brilliant German commander who arrived in North Africa with specially trained German forces; "Desert Fox"


by land and by sea


the blunder of the Battle of Britain was Hitler's underestimation of the ________ of the British people

RAF (Royal Air Force)

Britain's air force

Lend-Lease Act (1941)

authorized president to provide military supplies to any country whose security was important to the USA

Atlantic Charter

signed by Churchill and FDR, set forth the "common principles" on which both countries were based on


Germany's Operation Barbarossa was an invasion of _________

(Hideko) Tojo

fanatical militarist who became virtual dictator of Japan

December 7, 1941

on ___________ __, _________ Japan attacked the US at Pearl Harbor

aircraft carriers

because the _______ _______ were out on maneuvers, the US fleet was not totally destroyed in Pearl Harbor

(General Bernard L.) Montgomery

British commander at the Battle of El Alamein who defeated the Germans

(General Dwight D.) Eisenhower

led an American invasion force that landed on Algeria; shortly after that, the Axis troops in Africa surrendered


Eisenhower landed on this Italian island, forcing Mussolini to resign


fighters who harass an enemy occupying their territory


Churchill and FDR met here; declared only "unconditional surrender" of Axis would be acceptable

Big Three

Churchill, Roosevelt, and Stalin


conference of high-level officials

Operation Overlord

after the Teheran conference, the US and Britain began planning an invasion of France, known as this


in military terminology, the day when an attack is to be launched; invasion of France

June 6, 1944

D-day was on ______ __, _______

(General George) MacArthur

American commander in the Far East; "I shall return".

Battle of Coral Sea (1942)

this battle prevented the Japanese from launching a full-scale invasion of Australia

Battle of Midway (1942)

after this battle, Japan was placed on the defensive for the rest of the war


American forces began an _______-______ campaign, recapturing strategic Japanese-held islands in the Pacific


American soldiers faced these charges while fighting the Japanese, named because of their battle cry


Japanese suicide pilots

Iwo Jima, Okinawa

in 1945, American troops captured __ ______ and ________, two strategic Japanese islands

Battle of the Bulge (1944)

this battle wasted much of Germany's remaining strength and probably hastened the end of the war in Europe

Yalta Conference

recognized Soviet control of Eastern Europe

(Harry) Truman

due to FDR's death, represented the US at the Potsdam Conference

(Clement) Atlee

British prime minister who replaced Churchill at the Potsdam Conference


the US dropped its first atomic bomb on this Japanese city


the US dropped its second atomic bomb on this Japanese city

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