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79 terms

Science-Topic 7: Seeded Plants

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seeded plant
a plant that produces a fertilized egg (embryo) that is encased within a seed structure.
properties of seeded plants
Use vascular tissue to move materials.
Reproduce using pollen and seeds.
xylem
move water/minerals up.
phloem
move food down.
pollen
structure that delivers sperm to egg.
seed
structure that protects and nourishes fertilized egg.
seed coat
protects seed from drying out.
endosperm
food supply to nourish new plant.
embryo
start of new plant. Contains 3 parts: Cotyledon, hypocotyl, and roots.
cotyledon
initial leaf.
hypocotyl
initial stem.
seed dispersal
plants can't move, and so disperse seeds in many ways, such as wind, water, and animals.
germination
the process that starts when seed comes in contact with water. Embryo uses endosperm to grow out of seed.
objectives of roots
1) Anchor plant in the ground.
2) Absorb minerals + water from soil.
3) Food source.
taproot
one strong main root with branches.
fibrous
similar weak size branches.
root hairs
absorb water and nutrients.
dividing cells
expand root.
root cap
protects dividing cells.
objectives of stems
support plant and transport materials.
herbaceous
type of soft, fragile stem; dies at end of growing season.
woody
type of hard stem, covered with bark, survives beyond growing season.
cambium
behind bark, makes new xylem and phloem
leaf
the main organ of photosynthesis and transpiration in higher plants.
cuticle
waterproof coating that prevents water loss.
epidermis
top protective layer of cells.
mesophyll
tissue in the middle of the leaf.
palisades (upper) layer
thick layer with many chloroplasts for photosynthesis.
spongy (bottom) layer
allows for gas exchange.
vein
xylem and phloem.
stomata
allow gases (oxygen and carbon dioxide) in and out.
transpiration
water loss in plants.
prevention of water loss
water loss is prevented by closing down stomata.
leaves and photosynthesis
1) Carbon Dioxide from Stomata.
2) Water from Xylem.
3) Sugar + Oxygen made in Mesophyll.
4) Sugar go to Phloem.
5) Oxygen out of Stomata.
gymnosperm
naked seeds protected by plant structure (cones/leaves).
cone
the reproductive structure of a gymnosperm which contains a seed.
key features of gymnosperms
needle-like leaves and deep roots.
cycads
gymnosperm which has palm leaves with cones.
conifers
gymnosperm which keeps leaves (needles) all year round.
ginkgoes
gymnosperm with fan-shaped leaves. Only one type on earth.
gnetophytes
gymnosperm which has veins similar in structure to flowering plants (angiosperms).
sporophyte of gymnosperms
spores grow in cones.
gametophyte of gymnosperms
grow inside cones. Sperm made in pollen. Egg made in ovule. Wind moves pollen to ovule. Sperm enters ovule-fertilization. Wind disperses seed to new location.
angiosperm
flowers produce seeds protected by fruit.
fruit
fleshy structures that enclose seeds of plant.
monocot
seed has 1 cotyledon (initial leaf). Vascular tissue scattered through in plant. Flower petals in 3s.
dicot
seed has 2 cotyledon (initial leaves). Vascular tissue in bundles. Flower petals in 4s or 5s.
flower
reproductive organ of angiosperm plants.
sepal
protects flower.
petal
attracts insects with color and scent.
stamen
male reproductive organ.
anther
makes pollen.
filament
stalk that supports anther.
pistil
female reproductive organ.
stigma
sticky structure that attaches to pollen.
style
attaches stigma to ovary. Sends pollen to fertilize eggs in ovary.
ovary
holds eggs in ovules before fertilization.
ovule
a structure that contains an egg cell.
sporophyte of angiosperms
spores grow in flowers.
Male spore-stamen
Female spore-pistil.
gametophyte of angiosperms
Male spore-Pollen (male)
Female spore-ovule(female)
haploid.
pollination of angiosperms
pollen sticks to stigma and then moves to ovary.
fertilization of angiosperms
each ovule is fertilized. Zygotes grow into seeds.
fruit growth
ovary walls grow to become fruit surrounding seeds.
tropism
a growth response of a plant toward or away from a stimulus.
hormone
a chemical that affects how the plant grows and develops.
auxin
a plant hormone that speeds up the rate of growth of plant cells. Plant uses _____ to grow towards or away from stimuli.
photoperiodism
a seasonal response where plants flower depending on how long the day is.
short-day plant
bloom in fall/winter.
long-day plant
bloom in spring/summer.
critical night length
the number of hours of darkness that determines whether or not a plant will flower.
day-neutral plant
a plant whose flowering cycle is not sensitive to periods of light and dark.
dormancy
plant stops growth to survive freezing temperatures or lack of water.
annual
one year life cycle.
biennial
two year life cycle.
Year 1: Grows roots and leaves.
Year 2: Grows stem and flowers.
perennial
more than two year life cycle.
thigmotropism
Tropism type 1: Touch.
Plant grows around object they touch.
phototropism
Tropism type 2: Light.
Leaves and stems grow toward light to get energy.
gravitropism
Tropism Type 3: Gravity.
Roots go down. Stems go up.
pollination
the transfer of pollen from male reproductive structures to female reproductive structures in plants.