Personnel Psychology

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Tests developed for the United States armed forces
army alpha, army beta, army general classification test, The Armed Services Vocational Aptitude Battery (ASVAB)
Different types of variables (nominal, ordinal, interval, ratio); which types we usually get
usually use nominal and interval. Nominal: These are basically grouping variables, Ordinal: Allows distinction of categories and indications of magnitude, Interval: Allows distinctions of category, rank order, AND distance between values. Ratio: These are basically the same as interval scales, except they include a meaningful, absolute zero point that indicates the complete absence of a property
Operationalization
how you define your variable within a research context. If I am interested in seeing how smart you are then I could use a IQ test etc. How we define the things we're interested in measuring
The steps involved in creating a test (writing items, traditional item analysis):
want at least twice as many items, traditional item analysis looks at 4 thing which is the difficulty of the items, discriminability of your items (how well they distinguish between people who are smart and people who are not), distractor analysis
Different classifications of tests
Content: cognitive vs affective
Administration: group administration or single administration
Scoring: can be objective (means that there is a right or wrong answer) or non objective (means you have to interpret what you are saying)
The meaning of "face validity"
if the test appear to be measuring what its suppose to be measuring
Steps in the research process
identify the research question, design the research study, collect data, analyze data, and interpret results.
Different types of primary research:
experiment (typical lab experiment), quasi-experiment, questionnaires, and observations.
Secondary research
meta analysis an analysis of a prior analysis.
Other research methods (qualitative research):
use it when we first enter a new topic.
Properties of the correlation
correlations range from 0, -1 to 1
Regression
allows you to look at the number of independent variables and how they relate to a single dependent variable or a number of predictors and how they relate to a criterion. Allows us to determine the relationships between two things while controlling for other influences
Factors for criteria evaluation (discriminability)
whether or not it can distinguish between high performers and low performers or people that are high on something or low on something.
Ultimate vs actual criterion (relevance, deficiency, and contamination)
relevance is all that you want to measure, deficiency is what you miss, and contamination is the stuff in your criteria that is bias or junk that you don't want.
Know the "best practices" for:
• Using theories:
if they are useful.
Know the "best practices" for:
Judging a measure:
judge a measure by how well it does what it's supposed to measure.
Know the "best practices" for:
Using composite vs multiple criteria:
composite criteria trying to make a decision about somebody, and multiple criteria is when you're trying to give people feedback.
Contributions of early I-O psychology figures (Francis Galton, Walter Dill Scott):
Francis Galton in psychometrics: lexical hypothesis, questionnaire, In statistics: first to formulate variance/standard deviation, correlation/regression, regression toward the mean, Differential psychology (the study of individual differences) Walter Dill Scott First applied psychology to advertising, Then moved to applying it to business, Influencing Men in Business, Increasing Human Efficiency in Business, Applied personnel procedures to the Army during World War I
• Early I-O research, consulting firms, and organizations:
Changes in current work environments
managers are no longer to boss you around but to motivate you etc...
The division of the APA representing I-O psychology:
SIOP (society for industrial organizational psychology).
Objective vs subjective criteria/performance measures:
Object performance measures are based off of hard data like sales numbers or number of times you were absent or late. Subjective performance measures are usually ratings and are very subjective.
Composite vs multiple criteria
Composite criteria looking at a number of different criteria and turning into one number. Multiple criteria you are keeping the criteria separate and not adding them together.
Immediate vs intermediate vs summary criteria
Immediate criteria things that are short term like a pop quiz, intermediate criteria are a little more long term like 6 months like a midterm exam, summary criteria are long term criteria like things like your GPA.
Maximum vs typical performance:
maximum performance is when you are working your hardest (like for the exam on Monday), typical performance is what you usually do on an average day.
Task vs contextual performance:
task performance is the stuff your hired to do, contextual performance is all the other stuff you do like be nice to your co-workers, helping out around the office etc..
Maintenance vs transition phases
transition phases when you enter a new job, maintenance phase you already know what to do and just maintaining that performance.
Dynamic vs static dimensionality
Dynamic dimensionality how job performance changes over time and how your predictors will change over time. Static dimensionality you can look at different dimensions of job performance.
Internal vs external validity
Internal validity confident in your study, external validity is how applicable it is to the rest of the world. How likely your study will happen in the real world.
Speed vs power tests
Speed test have infinitive number of items and goal is to see how many you can get right. Power test is what we will have on Monday, and questions are more difficult.
Cognitive vs affective tests
Cognitive test measure your cognitive abilities, affective test deals with feelings, opinion, not really a wrong answer since it's your opinion.
Predictor's vs criteria:
predictors are independent variables, ones that cause the effect. A criterion is job performance, job satisfaction and where you see the effect.
Independent vs dependent variables
ones being manipulated (cause) and dependent variable is where you see the effect.
Categorical/qualitative vs continuous/quantitative variables
differences in terms of type (sex, hair color, etc), differences in terms of frequency, amount, or degree
Criteria
A evaluative standard that can be used to measure a person's performance, attitudes, motivation, etc.
Test:
A test may be defined as a systematic procedure for measuring a sample of behavior
Measurement
The assignment of numerals to objects or events according to a set of rules
Personnel psychology:
Personnel psychology is a subfield of I-O psychology concerned with individual differences in behavior and job performance and with methods for measuring and predicting such differences
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