a complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes. (Forms a double helix bonded by nucleotides.)
the biochemical units of heredity that make up the chormosomes; a segment of DNA capable of synthesizing a protein.
the complete instructions for all the genetic material in its chromosomes. Has 3 billion weakly bonded pairs of nucleotides organized as coiled chains of DNA.
The principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations.
A random error in gene replication that leads to a change in the sequence of nucleotides; the source of all genetic discovery.
the study of the evolution of behavior and the mind using priniciples of natural selection. Natural selection has favored genes that designed both behavioral tendencies and information-processing systems that solved adaptive problems faced by our ancestors, thus contributing to the survival and spread of their genes.
in psychology, the characteristics, whether biologically or socially influenced, by which people define male or female.
The study of the relative power and limits of genetic and environmental influences on behavior.
Twins who develop from a single fertilized egg that splits in two, creating two genetically identical organisms.
Twins who develop from separate eggs. They are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
The proportion of variation among individuals that we can attribute to genes. This may vary, depending on the range of populations and enviroments studied.
The dependence of the effect of one factor (such as environment) on another factor (such as heredity).
The subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes.
The enduring behaviors, ideas, attitudes, and traditions shared by a large group of people and transmitted from one generation to the next.
Variations in ideas, fashions, and innovations passed from one person to another that cause rapid cultural mutations.
the sex chromosome found in both men and women. Females have 2; males have one. One from each parent produces a female child
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with the other chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
The principle male sex hormone. During prenatal development, this stimulates the development of the external male sex organs.
A culturally prescribed set of behaviors expected of those who occupy a particular social position.
Social Learning Theory
Learning social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished.