psych final

Who is likely to hold a more negative attitude about aging?
Courtney, a white heterosexual woman
What does the term "gender-neutral housing" refer to on college campuses?
Allowing male and female students to share rooms in a residence hall
True or false: Premenstrual dysphoric disorder (PMDD) is recognized by the American Psychiatric Association as a psychological disorder.
True or false: The uterus is the female's most important producer of female sex hormones.
True or false: The areola is the part of the breast that cannot be seen from the outside.
What are criticisms of Freud's theory?
a) The unconscious is extremely difficult to study b) The theory is unscientific c) Freud studies mainly "sick" people
What did Freud's theory not get criticized for?
relying on correlational methods
What conversation technique is critical in maintaining healthy and satisfying relationships?
What factors contribute to communication problems for couples?
a) Health problems b) Inability to self-disclose c) Economic stressors
What are four main areas of PMDD symptoms?
mood, behavioral, somatic, cognitive
Which of the following would men be more likely than women to do in conversations? Use a) disclaimers b) tag questions c) use hedge words
What term is used to describe a transgender individual who is experiencing confusion or discomfort about their biological sex and gender identity?
gender dysphoria
What does the author if the textbook suggest is responsible for the level of body dissatisfaction in the US?
What is one way Margaret Sanger influenced sexuality history?
she was an advocate for birth control
In early Chinese culture, what was true related to the practice of polygamy?
it was a common practice
What early sexuality researcher would most likely label homosexuality behavior as pathological?
Richard von Kraft-Ebing
True or false: In cultures that practice female circumcision, the procedure typically occurs at birth.
how did Protestant views in the early 16th century differ from previous Christian views?
Sex in marriage was considered a means to reduce stress, avoid cheating and increase intimacy
What is the most likely diagnosis for a male who is infertile and the problem is genetic?
Klinefelter's syndrome
What was the name for a man who had his testicles and/or penis removed to prevent him from engaging in sexuality activity?
How much fluid (including tissue and blood) is typically released during the menstrual cycle?
2-4 Tablespoons
What best describes the ritual act of "sati" among Indian women?
the tradition of widows throwing themselves on their husband's burning funeral pyre
According to the text, most of sexuality is:
What is a quadruped?
any animal that walks on four legs
Who conducted most sexuality research in the late 19th century?
Which ancient civilization emphasized the natural blending of masculine and feminine principles as part of the procreative process?
What person is most likely to participate in a sexuality research study?
a male, Joshua, who is sexually experienced and more liberal
True of false: Sexual differentiation of the genitals begins earlier in pregnancy than sexual differentiation of the brain.
Which researcher founded the Institute for Sexology and believing that homosexuality was genetic, argued for the repeal of laws against against homosexuality and bisexuality?
Magnus Hirschfeld
After WWII, how were homosexuals treated?
homosexuals were put in jail and mental hospitals
If someone is trying to weigh his/her options to make a decision about whether to take a new job in a different city, he/she is likely to prefer talking with a friend who has this style of communication.
According to evolutionary theory, we enter a sexual relationship to:
pass on our genes
What general statement is most accurate concerning hormone replacement theory (HRT)?
There are pros and cons of HRT that need to be evaluated on a case-by-case basis
Sadaf has irregular menstruation, is overweight, and has excessive body and facial hair, and acne. What condition could she have?
polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS)
According to the Onion Theory of communication, what best describes how we reveal ourselves to others?
We share about ourselves beginning with the least personal.
What best describes emoticons?
a) They are used more often by females b) They can detract from the seriousness of the statement c) They are similar to tag questions used during face-to-face conversations- all of these are true
In 1973, the American Psychiatric Association:
removed homosexuality from its list of psychiatric disorders
What is one factor that makes women more susceptible than men to urinary tract infections?
a shorter urethra
Which type of theorist would state the biggest sexual organ is the brain?
What does the term mittelschmerz refer to?
slight pain or sensation felt by some women during ovulation
Who was the first researcher to ask Americans about their sexual behavior, finding in his/her study that most of the US women surveyed thought sexual intercourse was for pleasure and reproduction?
Alfred Kinsey
True or false: Temple prostitutes were women who would have sex with worshipers to provide money for the temple.
According to the textbook, when is it recommended for women to undergo their first gynecological exam with a Pap smear?
beginning within 3 years after first sexual intercourse or at age 21
Research finds that couples who communicate with each other about sexuality issues are:
more likely to report higher levels of relationship satisfaction
What does the Instead Softcup do?
holds back menstrual fluid during sexual activity
True or false: Breasts are an example of secondary sexual characteristics.
Megan was raised as a female. When she failed to menstruate at puberty, her doctor found that she was genetically male. Megan's most likely diagnosis?
Androgen-insensitivity syndrome (AIS)
In early Puritan culture young couples were allowed to share a bed as long as they were clothed and wrapped in sheets. What was this practice called?
A sexologist teaching at a university offers students the option of writing a term paper or participating in a sexuality survey. What challenge would this pose for findings from the survey?
Volunteer bias
True of false: Foot binding originated out of men's desire for women with small feminine feet.
True of false: The gender binary refers to the traditional division of people into two groups as male or female.
True of false: A research process is a set of assumptions, principles and methods that help a research understand the nature of the phenomenon being studied
Children see that on Saturdays their mom spends the day inside cleaning and doing the laundry while their dad does outside work such as mowing the yard and changing the oil. What theory suggests that children learn gender roles through this type of modeling?
Social learning
What is the most probable diagnosis for a woman whose menstrual cycles are normal except that she experiences higher than normal menstrual flow?
What is the primary function of the mons veneris?
To protect the genitals during intercourse
What layer of the uterus contracts to expel menstrual fluid and push the fetus out of the womb during labor?
What best describes the three goals of communication discussed in your chapter?
The three goals compete with eachother
True or false: Implantation of a fertilized egg usually occurs during the luteal phase of the menstrual cycle?
What country has one of the highest rates of sexual reassignment surgeries in the world?
True or false: When we want to protect an image with our message, we are focusing on the goal of getting the job done.
Steward has small testicles, a low level of testosterone, feminized body contours and is infertile. What is Stewart's most likely diagnosis?
Kleinfelter's syndrome
True or false: Androgens are important for sexual development, specifically in males.
If following the pattern of findings in the US, which person would be least likely to adhere to gender role stereotyping?
An African American female
What best describes the role of sexologists?
Study sexual behavior scientifically
According to David Gilmore's research related to the evolutionary purpose of masculine and feminine socialization, which statement would be most accurate in societies with plenty of food and the absence of enemies and predators.
Differences between men and women would not be emphasized
Who is more likely to apologize in relationships?
Heterosexual women
In early Puritan communities, all of the following were true except:
Premarital sexual relations were permitted
What best describes the most recent US approach to sex research?
Problem driven and underfunded
True of false: Sigmund Freud believed that our basic personality is formed by events that happen to us in the first six years of your life.
According to research findings, what is characteristic of gay men's speech patterns?
Higher use of adjectives, a wider that usual pitch range, more use of arm and hand gestures. Answer d) all of these
What theory suggests that we learn gender roles from the same system of rewards and punishments that we learn other social roles?
Social learning
What layer of the uterus is partially shed during menstruation?
True or false: Couples who are more comfortable with their sexuality report higher levels of sexual intercourse during menstruation.
Decreasing estrogen during the years leading up to and after menopause can lead to all of the following except:
enlargement of the clitoris and labia
True of false: The Comstock Act of 1873 allowed people access to contraception if they were married.
True or false: Using disclaimers during conversation is found to be an indicator of high relationship satisfaction.
What is a disadvantage of correlational research?
It provides no information about causation
What best describes most teen shows in the US?
Most teen shows have high sexual content and minimal information on the risks associated with sexual activity
True of false: Someone with Turner syndrome would look like a genetic female at birth.
What is the age range in which menopause will typically occur?
John Gottman found that the ratio of positive to negative interactions in a relationship:
goes down as couples experience more stress
Sara is experiencing vaginal burning and rawness along with sometimes stabbing pain in the vaginal area. Although her gynecologist has been unable to identify a specific cause, what is most likely the diagnosis?
According to Epstein, what aspect of human behavior perpetuates gender inequalities?
Dichotomous thinking
When humans began to walk upright, how did sexuality change?
The sensual aspect of intercourse became more important
True or false: Pap smears, taken during routine pelvic exams, text for ovarian cancer
What did Freud believe takes place during the phallic stage of development?
Girls develop penis envy
"I might be wrong, but I think its going to rain today" is an example of what?
a disclaimer
In which stage of the menstrual cycle does the endometrium reach its maximum thickness in preparation to receive and nourish a fertilized egg?
What is the name for the structure of the female anatomy that is homologous to the penis and has the sole purpose of providing sexual pleasure?
True of false:The National Survey of Sexual Health and Behavior found that today's adolescents are increasingly engaging in more risky sexual behaviors.
Which group of teens was found to have lower GPAs, care less about school and experience more school problems?
Teens engaging in casual sex
Who is most likely to report the highest level of marital happiness?
a white male
Young boys are often told to call their penis a "wiener". What are young girls often told to call their clitoris?
it isn't given any nicknames
"I feel very possessive about ______" is an example from which part of Rubin's Love Scale?
According to attachment researchers, what style of attachment in infancy leads to adults to have a difficult time trusting their partners?
A 21-year old male has just been diagnosed with cancer of the reproductive organs. Given his age, which of these cancers is more likely?
In his observations of heterosexual strangers in bar situations, Perper found if people were mutually attracted to each other that first indication was what?
They turn their bodies more toward each other until they are facing each other.
According to information in your text, what is a significant characteristic that distinguishes love from intimacy?
According to an evolutionary scientist, what characteristic of the penis would serve an important function related to sperm competition (when the sperm of two or more men is present on the female reproductive tract)?
Coronal ridge
True or false: Longer cohabitation has been found to be associated with higher likelihood of divorce in heterosexual couples.
What is the 18-inch tube that carries sperm away from the testicles and mixes it with other seminal fluids?
Vas deferens
All of the following statements regarding arranged marriages are true except:
Arranging marriages in the US is illegel
Research finds more adolescent and young adult males masturbate than females. What is one possible reason for this?
Females may under-report their masturbation
Which statement best describes a covenant marriage?
a marriage in which prenuptially, the couple agrees on a set of rules and regulations for ending the marriage, including a wait time for finalization of a divorce
What is the term used to describe the set of behaviors developed i adolescence that we use to forge close relationships throughout our lives?
Intimacy repertoire
What is the term used to describe love that will never be returned?
Riley has been asking questions such as "why do some girls have larger breasts than others" and "do boys have a period too" how old is Riley likely to be?
When it comes to choosing an ideal mate, what does the most current research show?
Heterosexual females and males rate financial stability as an important factor in attraction
Which of the following areas has been studied related to sperm production?
cell phone use, alcohol use, bicycling-answer d) all of these
How many sperm per milliliter on average does each ejaculation contain
50-150 million per milliliter
Ovulation typically produces just one egg per cycle. Why does ejaculate contain more than just one sperm?
Sperm work together to achieve fertilization through combined enzyme production
True or false: Sperm requires temperatures cooler than the body's temperature for viability.
True or false: Casual parental attitudes towards nudity and seeing parents naked are correlated with lower levels of self-esteem in children
Comparing divorce rates within the first 10 years of marriage, what is true regarding divorce rates of couples married in 1970s and couples married in the 1990s?
The percentage of couples that divorced within the first 10 years decreased from 1970 to 1990
If you want to cohabitate with your couple and be given the similar rights as married couples, you would want then to live in:
True or false: One's culture has a more powerful impact on one's love belief's than one's gender
What is a common criticism of many of the studies related to childhood sexuality?
Most are retrospective in nature and rely on older adults to remember what they did when they were oung
All of the following are true about tens and contraceptive use except:
Teens in long term relationships are less likely to use contraceptive methods
What is one example given in the text for how a couple's score on Rubin's love scale correlates with their behavior?
Probability they will get married
What is "passion" according to Stenberg's research?
It is sparked by physical attraction and sexual desire driving a person to pursue a romantic relationship
True or false: Heterosexual men and women systematically underestimate the attractiveness of members of their own sex.
What percent of high school students commonly report being unsure about their sexual orientation?
At what age do the first outward signs of puberty typically emerge?
9 or 10
All of the following statements describe the epididymis except:
It is where sperm can be stored for several months
What aspect of love does a person's culture impact?
how easily he or she falls in love, who he or she falls in love with, how the relationship proceeds- answer d) all of these
If the semen of a man has a bitter taste, one could suspect that he:
is a coffee drinker
Related to sex outside of marriage, how does the US compare to other countries?
Less than 5% of all societies are as strict about forbidding extramarital intercourse as the US
Research has found a strong correlation between intimacy and the ability to do what?
True or false: On average, boys begin ejaculation before most girls experience their first period.
What best describes genital self-stimulation in infants?
Genital touching is common and should not be discouraged
Four year old Emma knows that she is a girl, but sometimes says thins indicating that she thinks she may be a boy in the future. Emma has not yet achieved:
gender constancy
True or false: Passionate love is more valued in individualistic cultures than in collectivist cultures.
Who typically communicates about sexuality between parents and children?
Mothers to both sons and daughters
According to research, what lovestyles identified by Lee are associated with poorer psychological health?
Manic and ludic
What does the term spermatogenesis refer to?
The production of sperm
The finding that gay men are more likely than heterosexual men to believe that "you should share your most intimate thoughts and feelings with the person you love" can possibly be explained by which statement?
Gay men tend to adopt fewer stereotyped beliefs about gender roles
True of false: Couples who were already engaged prior to living together have the same chance of divorce as couples who marry without living with each other first.
Who is more likely to get married?
A white woman with a Bachelor's degree
What symptoms are associated with sexual interest/arousal disorders?
absent or reduced sexual thoughts or fantasies, reduced genital sensations during sexual activity, absent of reduced pleasure during sexual activity-answer d) all of these
How does the amount of hormone released through the NuvaRing compare to other hormonal contraceptive methods?
The NuvaRing releases lower levels of hormones compared to other hormonal methods
All of the following statements are true about the use of male condoms except:
they enhance the sexual sensation for both the male and female
True of false: Patients tend to prefer the drug, Cialis, over Viagra because Cialis has a longer duration.
True of false: The majority of births worldwide take place in hospitals.
According to your textbook, all of the following refer to safe sex except:
sex while on the pill
What statement is descriptive of men's reactions to abortion?
Men often do not discuss the pregnancy with anyone other than their partner
What has been found related to birth order and sexual orientation?
gay men have more older brothers than heterosexual males
True of false: Heterosexism is typically a very active form of discrimination.
True of false: Men are not capable of faking orgasms.
According to your text, homophobia is:
strong negative attitudes toward homosexuals and homosexuality
How much does the average full term baby weigh at birth?
seven and a half pounds
True of false: Masturbation rates remain constant over the lifetime.
True of false: Today's teens are coming out at earlier ages than during other times in history
What is the name of the device placed just under the skin in the arm that uses time-released hormones to prevent pregnancy for up to 3 years?
The fetus is about 13 inches long and 1.75 pounds, resembles a human and has developed reflexes such as sucking and swallowing. What stage of pregnancy are we talking about?
End of second trimester
What greatly influenced the harsh attitude toward homosexuality in the early American colonies?
The Puritanical origins of the early settlers
What is the term used to describe the assumption that everyone has opposite-sex attraction and will eventually form a long term relationship with a member of the opposite sex.
True of false: Research shows that women's sexual identity is more fluid than men's
What is true about men and women's sexual fantasies?
Most people have a few specific fantasies they use repeatedly to become aroused
True of false: Tranduation is another word for erection.
The major organ systems are formed, the circulatory and urinary systems are operating and the fetus weighs about half an ounce. What stage of pregnancy are we talking about?
End of the first trimester
True of false: As of 2010, there were no FDA-approved medications available for the treatment of female sexual arousal and desire problems.
True or false: New research in the area of prenatal and adult hormone levels is providing strong evidence for biological theories of sexual orientation.
What are the symptoms of erectile disorder?
A persistent inability to obtain or maintain an erection sufficient for satisfactory sexual performance
True or false: Progestin-only birth control methods are recommended for women who are breastfeeding