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Jonathon Edwards

He was an American theologian and Congregational clergyman, whose sermons stirred the religious revival, called the Great Awakening. He is known for his " Sinners in the Hands of an Angry God " sermon.

Benjamin Franklin

He owned a successful printing and publishing company in Philadelphia. He conducted studies of electricity, invented bifocal glasses, the lighting rod, and the stove. He was a important diplomat and statesman and eventually signed the Declaration of Independence and the Constitution of the United States.

Michel-Guillame de Crevecour

French settler on America in the 1770's; he posed the question of what "American" is after seeing people in America like he had never seen before. American really became a mixture of many nationalities.

Phillis Wheatley

a slave girl who became a poet. At age eight, she was brought to Boston. published a book of poetry at age 20

George Whitefield

He was a great preacher who had recently been an alehouse attendant. Everyone in the colonies loved to hear him preach of love and forgiveness because he had a different style of preaching. This led to new missionary work in the Americas in converting Indians and Africans to Christianity, as well as lessening the importance of the old clergy.

John S. Copley

A famous Revolutionary era painter, traveled to England to finish his study of the arts. Only in the Old World could he find subjects with the leisure time required to be painted, and the money needed to pay him for it. was loyal to England during The Revolution.

John Peter Zenger

Journalist who questioned the policies of the governor of New York in the 1700's. He was jailed; he sued, and this court case was the basis for our freedom of speech and press. He was found not guilty.


people who fled their home in Scotland in the 1600s to escape poverty and religious oppression. They first relocated to Ireland and then to America in the 1700s. They lived in Virginia, the Carolinas, and Georgia. These areas are home to many Presbyterian churches established by these people. Many people in these areas are still very independent like their ancestors.

Land of Opportunity

America, new people could own land that previously couldn't - even poor people. New beginnings. So much land - started slavery

Social Stratification

the hierarchal rankings of groups of people based on access to and control over socially valued resources

Atlantic Triangle

New England, Africa, and England. Sometimes included the West Indies. Trade routes that transported slaves to the colonies and England, money and raw produce to England and Africa, and finished products from England

Molasses Act

A British law passed in 1773 to change a trade pattern in the American colonies by taxing molasses imported into colonies not ruled by Britain. Americans responded to this attempt to damage their international trade by bribing and smuggling. Their protest of this and other laws led to revolution.

Great Awakening

This was a religious revival held in the 1730's and 1740's to motivate the colonial America. Motivational speakers such as Jonathan Edwards and George Whitefield helped to bring Americans together.

John Peter Zenger Case

He was jailed for questioning the governor of New York. His case influenced freedom of speech and freedom of press.

Paxton Boys

They were a group of Scots-Irish men living in the Appalachian hills that wanted protection from Indian attacks. They made an armed march on Philadelphia in 1764. They protested the lenient way that the Quakers treated the Indians. Their ideas started the Regulator Movement in North Carolina.

Catawba Nation

A group of the remains of several different Indian tribes that joined together in the late 1700's. This was in the Southern Piedmont region. Forced migration made the Indians join in this group.


merciless rent increases

Regulator Movement

It was a movement during the 1760's by western North Carolinians, mainly Scots-Irish, that resented the way that the Eastern part of the state dominated political affairs. They believed that the tax money was being unevenly distributed. Many of its members joined the American Revolutionists.

Old and New Lights

In the early 1700's, olds were simply orthodox members of the clergy who believed that the new ways of revivals and emotional preaching were unnecessary. New´s were the more modern- thinking members of the clergy who strongly believed in the Great Awakening. These conflicting opinions changed certain denominations, helped popularize missionary work and assisted in the founding educational centers now known as Ivy League schools.

Naval Stores

Pitch and tar made from pinetrees and used to make ships water-tight

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