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second great awakening

A series of religious revivals starting in 1801, based on Methodism and Baptism. Stressed a religious philosophy of salvation through good deeds and tolerance for all Protestant sects. The revivals attracted women, Blacks, and Native Americans.


church founded by Joseph Smith in 1830 with headquarters in Salt Lake City, Utah

joseph smith

religious leader who founded the Mormon Church in 1830 (1805-1844)

brigham young

United States religious leader of the Mormon Church after the assassination of Joseph Smith


a movement in literature and art during the late 18th and early 19th centuries that celebrated nature rather than civilization


any system of philosophy emphasizing the intuitive and spiritual above the empirical and material

ralph waldo emerson

United States writer and leading exponent of transcendentalism (1803-1882)

henry david thoreau

United States writer and social critic (1817-1862)

brook farm

A transcendentalist Utopian experiment, put into practice by transcendentalist former Unitarian minister George Ripley at a farm in West Roxbury, Massachusetts, at that time nine miles from Boston. The community, in operation from 1841 to 1847, was inspired by the socialist concepts of Charles Fourier. Fourierism was the belief that there could be a utopian society where people could share together to have a better lifestyle.


a celibate and communistic Christian sect in the United States

oneida community

A group of socio-religious perfectionists who lived in New York. Practiced polygamy, communal property, and communal raising of children.

joseph henry noyes

Helped found the Oneida Community

thomas cole

Landscape artist who became a leader of the Hudson River School of painting/ known for painting nature scenes around the Hudson River Valley

frederick church

Central figure in the Hudson River School, pupil of Thomas Cole, known for his landscapes and for painting colossal views of exotic places

hudson river school

the first coherent school of American art

washington irving

United States writer remembered for his stories (1783-1859)

james fennimore cooper

Found the gold in Mt. Davidson, Wrote numerous sea-stories as well as the historical romances known as the Leather stocking Tales, featuring frontiersman Natty Bumppo. Among his most famous works is the romantic novel The Last of the Mohicans, which many people consider his masterpiece.

nathanial hawthorne

wrote the scarlet letter about a puritan adulteress; he also wrote about the concepts of evil, sin and death

dorothea dix

Rights activist on behalf of mentally ill patients - created first wave of US mental asylums

horace mann

United States educator who introduced reforms that significantly altered the system of public education (1796-1859)

mcguffey reader

Written by influential Ohioan William McGuffey, a powerful teacher-preacher. The grade-school readers sold 122 million copies. McGuffey's Readers hammered home lasting lessons in morality, patriotism, and idealism.

grimke sisters

were 19th-century American Quakers, educators and writers who were early advocates of abolitionism and women's rights.

lucretia mott

A Quaker who attended an anti-slavery convention in 1840 and her party of women was not recognized. She and Stanton called the first women's right convention in New York in 1848

elizabeth cady stanton

United States suffragist and feminist

seneca falls convention

Took place in upperstate New York in 1848. Women of all ages and even some men went to discuss the rights and conditions of women. There, they wrote the Declaration of Sentiments, which among other things, tried to get women the right to vote.

susan B. anthony

social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation

william lloyd garrison

United States abolitionist who published an anti-slavery journal (1805-1879)

the liberator

An anti-slavery newspaper written by William Lloyd Garrison. It drew attention to abolition, both positive and negative, causing a war of words between supporters of slavery and those opposed.

frederick douglass

United States abolitionist who escaped from slavery and became an influential writer and lecturer in the North (1817-1895)

harriet tubman

United States abolitionist born a slave on a plantation in Maryland and became a famous conductor on the Underground Railroad leading other slaves to freedom in the North (1820-1913)

sojourner truth

United States abolitionist and feminist who was freed from slavery and became a leading advocate of the abolition of slavery and for the rights of women (1797-1883)

david walker

He was a black abolitionist who called for the immediate emancipation of slaves. He wrote the "Appeal to the Colored Citizens of the World." It called for a bloody end to white supremacy. He believed that the only way to end slavery was for slaves to physically revolt.

amelia bloomer

An American women's rights and temperance advocate. She presented her views in her own monthly paper, The Lily, which she began publishing in 1849. When Amelia was 22, she married a lawyer by the name of Dexter Bloomer. One of the major causes promoted by Amelia was a change in dress standards for women so that they would be less restrictive.

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