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Hasty Generalization

a stereotype: the speaker makes a generalization based off of a sample that's too small or that not have adequate evidence.

Missing the Point

the premises are adequate and can lead to good conclusion, but the speaker uses an irrelevant conclusion.

Slippery Slope

the speaker gives a list of possible reactions that might be slightly exaggerated, without considering that these things don't HAVE to happen.

Ad Populum

"to the people," the speaker tries to convince the audience that an argument is valid because it's the choice of the majority.

Ad Hominem

this attacks the person rather than the argument and makes an attack that is irrelevant

Tu Quoque

the arguer tries to attack his opponent, but is really just being hypocritical.

Appeal to Authority

the speaker uses the opinion of a respected individual as support, but the individual themselves is not an expert in the topic.

Appeal to Pity

the speaker appeals to the emotions of the audience as support rather than providing real evidence.

Appeal to Ignorance

since there is no evidence to contradict, then the speaker assumes the topic must be true.

Red Herring

the speaker goes on tangent and distracts the audience from the real purpose of the argument

Straw Man

the speaker tries to build support by cutting down a weak argument from the opponent

Begging the Question

circular reasoning, the speaker pretty much restates himself and uses a premise as a conclusion without saying anything of value

Weak Analogy

the speaker makes a comparison between two things, but the important points of comparison do not match up

Post Hoc

the speaker gives a cause and effect relationship based only on the fact that one thing happened after the other.


the speaker uses words of similar meaning interchangeably throughout the argument, when the words have significant differences.

False Dichotomy

the speaker presents a situation as if there are only two opinions when that is not the case

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