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The American legal system is a direct descendent of

British common law.

Individuals interact with various people, organizations, institutions and social norms as they mature and develop. This process is referred to as


Criminologists interested in computing criminal statistics focus on creating ____ and ____ measurements of criminal behavior.

valid, reliable

While criminologists may adhere to the consensus, conflict, or interactionist view of crime, it is the ______ that defines crimes and their punishments.

written code

Which of the following is not a legitimate social goal of the criminal law?

encouraging revenge

Gathering valid crime data, devising new research methods, and measuring crime patterns and trends fall under the ______ subarea of the criminological enterprise.

criminal statistics

"Let the punishment fit the crime" refers to which criminological school of thought?

classical criminology

Which concept of crime implies that crimes are behaviors that all members of society consider to be repugnant, be they rich and powerful or poor and powerless?

the consensus view of crime

Marvin Wolfgang's 1958 study, Patterns in Criminal Homicide is an example of which subarea of the criminological enterprise?

understanding and describing criminal behavior

Which of the following offenses would be classified as a felony?


Under common law, if a royal judge successfully applied a ruling in a number of different cases and published that ruling in order that other judges could apply the ruling in their subsequent decisions, the ruling would become

a precedent.

The academic discipline of criminology uses scientific methods to study the__________ of criminal behavior.

nature, extent, cause, and control

Which of the following offenses would be classified as a misdemeanor?

unarmed assault

The "father of criminology" and the man who referred to offenders as "born criminals" was


The Uniform Crime Report is a primary source of crime data collected by the

Federal Bureau of Investigation.

What shortcoming in the UCR is addressed by the National Crime Victimization survey?

the nonreporting issue

The UCR expresses data as raw figures, crime rates, and changes in the number and rate over time. How are crime rates expressed in the UCR?

rates per 100,000 total U.S. population

While self-report studies can be used to examine the offense history of prison inmates and drug users, most self-report studies have focused on

youth crime.

The reporting accuracy of self-report studies is impacted by

the "missing cases" phenomenon.

How does today's violent crime rate compare to the violent crime rate in 1991?

Today's violent crime rate as decreased by nearly 40%.

Most criminologists believe that homicide data are the most accurate and valid UCR statistics. What do data indicate about homicide rates?

Between 1991 and 2008, homicide rates dropped 40%.

Referring to the ecology of crime, when is crime most likely to happen?

on July 1st with a temperature of 80 degrees

People living in poverty are believed to engage in disproportionate amounts of _____ crimes, such as rape and assault, as a result of their rage, anger, and frustration against society.


Some criminologists believe that the key to desistance and aging out is linked to human biology. What biological process accounts for desistance and aging out?

the level of hormone activity in the brain

In Wolfgang et al.'s famous study of male juvenile delinquents, what percentage were chronic offenders?


Discovery of the chronic offender has forced criminologists to consider _____ in their explanations of crime.

persistence and desistence

Which of the following is not a key predictive factor for chronicity?

adequate parental supervision and control

What discovery prompted the scientific study of victims?

the discovery that victims play an important role in the crime process

If the cost of the justice system, legal costs, and treatment costs are included, the total annual monetary loss due to crime is ___ or about ____ per U.S. citizen.

$450 billion - $1800

Some victims, especially ______ develop a persistent and paralyzing fear that they will be re-victimized.

the elderly

Being abused or neglected as a child __________ the odds of being arrested, both as a juvenile and as an adult.


Victims of crime, especially childhood abuse, are more likely to commit crime themselves. This abuse-crime phenomenon is termed

the cycle of violence.

Referencing the social ecology of victimization, in general, where is a violent crime more likely to take place?

in a park

People living in rural areas have a victimization rate almost __________ than that of city dwellers.

50% lower

Why are schools the locale of a great deal of victimization?

Because schools are populated by teenage males.

Gender affects victimization risk. Which of the following is a significant gender difference?

Women are more likely to be victimized by someone they know.

Victim risk diminishes rapidly after age


The elderly are most often victims of a narrow band of crimes that includes


Tom has been repeatedly victimized while wearing the home team's football jersey while sitting on the visiting team's side of the football field. What aspect of repeat victimization accounts for Tom's troubles?

target antagonism

Which victimization theory claims that victims may initiate, either actively or passively, the confrontation that leads to their victimization?

victim precipitation theory

According to deviant place theory, the greater their exposure to dangerous places, the more likely people will become victims of crime and violence. Which factor does not characterize a deviant/dangerous place?

a neighborhood with educational and residential properties

The view that victimization results from the interaction of three everyday factors: the availability of suitable targets, the absence of capable guardians, and the presences of motivated offenders is called

routine activities theory.

According to Cohen and Felson, why did crime rates increase between 1960 and 1980?

Because guardians decreased as a result of increased female participation in the workforce.

Counselors who help victims to understand the operations of the criminal justice system, who guide victims through the justice process, and who may provide transportation to and from court are called

victim advocates.

Mediated face-to-face encounters between victims and their attackers that are designed to produce restitution agreements are called

victim-offender reconciliation programs.

The National Crime Victimization Survey is considered superior to the Uniform Crime Report because:

It provides are more accurate picture of the extent of crime in America

Rational choice theory has roots in the __________ school of criminology developed by the Italian social thinker, Cesare Beccaria.


Crime is ________ because criminals will react selectively to the characteristics of an individual criminal act.


Which of the following circumstances would prompt an offender to decide to forgo crime?

The offender would stand a good chance of being caught and punished.

According to the rational choice approach, the decision to commit crime is structured by

where the crime occurs and the characteristics of the target.

Why is drug dealing considered a rational crime?

Because drug dealers approach their "profession" in a businesslike fashion.

Jacob's and Wright's research on robbers indicates that target selection can be a rational choice made to ____ rather than to generate capital.

send a message

Sociologist Jack Katz argues that there are situational inducements to criminality that directly precede the commission of crime and draw offenders into law violations. Katz termed these inducements the

seductions of crime.

The "high" or the excitement/exhilaration of successfully executing illegal activities in dangerous situations is referred to as


Closed circuit television (CCTV) surveillance cameras and improved street lighting are mechanical forms of

crime discouragers

Situational crime prevention tactics generally fall into one of four categories. Which of the following is not one of those categories?

increasing the use of probation for committing crime

A method of crime prevention that seeks to eliminate or reduce particular crimes in specific settings is referred to as

situational crime prevention

Research on the immediate impact of well-publicized executions

failed to find evidence that an execution produces an immediate decline in the murder rate.

Specific deterrence suggests that criminal sanctions should be so powerful that known criminals will never repeat their criminal acts. What do we know about harsh (powerful) sanctions and deterrence?

All these things are known about harsh sanctions.

Economist Steven Levitt concludes that each person put behind prison bars results in a decrease of ___ serious crimes per year.


Which of the following is a reason why some critics say it is premature to embrace three strikes policies?

Most three-time losers are on the verge of aging out of crime anyway.

Social strata are created by the unequal distribution of wealth. While the upper-class is exceptionally well-to-do, ______ people live in poverty in America.


________ are segments of the population whose members have a relatively similar portion of desirable belongings, and who share attitudes, values and norms.

Social classes

Oscar Lewis argues that the crushing lifestyle of lower-class areas produces ________ that is passed on from one generation to the next.

a culture of poverty

Failure to complete high school greatly impacts one's social and economic opportunities. What percent of inner-city, black males do not complete high school?

over 50%

Cultural deviance theory combines elements of _____ and social disorganization theories.


Strain theory holds that crime is a function of

conflict between people's goals and means.

Shaw and McKay explained crime and delinquency within the context of

the changing urban environment and ecological development of the city.

Social ecology school criminologists associate crime rates and the need for police services to

community deterioration.

Cohesive communities with high levels of social control and social integration and where people develop interpersonal ties are also likely to develop

collective efficacy.

When members of the lower-class are unable to achieve symbols of success via conventional means they feel anger, frustration, and resentment. These feelings are collectively referred to as


What two elements of culture interact to produce anomie and/or anomic conditions?

culturally defined goals and socially approved means for obtaining them

Judith and Peter Blau developed the concept of __________, the idea that anger and mistrust result from perceptions of inequality that lead lower-class people to feel deprived and embittered in comparison with those more affluent.

relative deprivation

__________ reflects the view that multiple sources of strain interact with an individual's emotional traits and responses to criminality.

General strain theory

Walter Miller identified the unique conduct norms that define the lower-class culture and that often clash with conventional values. Which of the following is not one of those norms?


Subcultural values are handed down from one generation to the next in a process called

cultural transmission.

Social process theories share one basic concept. Which is it?

All people, regardless of their race, class, or gender, have the potential to become delinquents or criminals.

Social control theory suggests that

crime occurs when the forces that bind people to society are weakened or broken.

Social reaction theory suggests that

people become criminals when significant members of society label them as such.

_________ refers to a style of parenting with parents who are supportive and who effectively control their children in a non-coercive way.

Parental efficacy

Adolescents who do not receive affection from their parents during childhood are

more likely to use illicit drugs and be more aggressive as they mature.

According to the author, which of the following is accurate regarding why troubled kids choose delinquent peers?

Troubled kids do so out of necessity rather than desire.

Religion and belief impact criminal behavior. Even children in high crime areas are better able to resist drug use if they

attend religious services.

Which of the following research findings supports the core principles of differential association theory?

Crime appears to be intergenerational.

Neutralization theory points out that

even the most committed criminals and delinquents are not involved in criminality all the time.

Criminals sometimes neutralize wrongdoings by "appealing to higher loyalties." Which of the following would be an example of that technique?

Attacking someone who is arguing with a friend.

Pioneering social control theorist, Walter Reckless argued that a _______ insulates a youth from the pressures of crimogenic influences in the environment.

strong self-image

Which of the following issues has been raised regarding the validity of social control theory?

Delinquency may lead to weakened social bonds, not vice versa.

According to Lemert, __________ involves norm violations or crimes that have little influence on the actor and, therefore, can be quickly forgotten.

primary deviance

__________ is a process whereby secondary deviance pushes offenders out of the mainstream of society and offenders begin their escalating cycle of deviance.

Deviance amplification

The process of becoming stigmatized by crime labels is interactive. Labeling theorists blame the establishment of criminal careers on

crime control agencies.

According to conflict theorists, societal conflict promotes crime by

creating a social atmosphere in which the law is a mechanism for controlling have-not members of society.

The social climate of the ____ gave birth to critical criminology.


The publication of Taylor, Walton, and Young's __________ in 1973 gave a powerful boost to the conflict view and created a tradition for critical criminologists to question the role criminology plays in supporting the status quo and aiding the oppression of the poor and powerless.

The New Criminology

According to critical theorists, crime is a

political concept designed to protect the power and position of the upper classes.

Profits produced by the laboring classes are accrued by business owners who use these profits for reinvestment or to enrich themselves. This key crime-producing effort of modern corporate capitalism is termed

surplus value.

Critical theorists question the altruism of multi-national corporations and, therefore, take a very skeptical view of


____ describes the anti-social behaviors that arise from efforts to maintain governmental power or to uphold the race, class, and gender advantages of those who support the government.

State (organized) crime

Some government experts use the "ticking Bomb scenario," to justify which type of state crime?


Instrumental theorists consider it essential to __________ law and justice - that is, to unmask its true purpose.


What type of research methodology is a critical criminologist most likely to employ?

examination of historical trends

While mainstream criminologists criticize critical criminologists, what do critical criminologists accuse mainstream criminologists of doing?

selling out their ideals for the chance to receive government funding

According to Messerschmidt's views in Capitalism, Patriarchy, and Crime what factor explains why females in society commit fewer crimes than males?

double marginality

Girls growing up in ______ are socialized to fear legal sanctions more than males; consequently, boys in these families exhibit more delinquent behavior than their sisters.

paternalistic families

John Lea and Jock Young, leaders of the leftist realism movement, contend that

the poor are doubly abused, first by the capitalist system and then by members of their own class.

Peacemaking criminologists view the efforts of the state to punish and control crime as

encouraging crime rather than discouraging it.

Which of the following is true regarding restorative justice programs?

Restoration programs have been part of peacekeeping in Asian, Native American and Native Canadian communities for centuries.

A number of restorative justice experts, including Gordon Bazemore, have suggested that restorative justice should be organized around the principle of


Public policy programs based on developmental theory

feature multi-systemic treatments designed for at-risk youths.

Latent trait theorists believe human development is controlled by a master trait present at birth or soon after that results in

an increased propensity to commit crime.

Which is an inaccurate statement about problem behaviors and problem behavior syndrome?

Problem behavior syndrome portrays crime as the product of other social problems.

Bacon and Paternoster identified this pathway to crime characterized by staying out of trouble during adolescence, until late in one's teenage years, then becoming violent chronic offenders.

the late bloomer pathway

Why is early onset an important factor in crime?

Because early onset of antisocial behavior predicts later and more serious criminality.

One of the key principles of life course theory is that

the seeds of a criminal career are planted early in life.

Life course theories integrate personal, social, socialization, situational and cognitive factors to explain human behavior. Personality and intelligence are __________ factors that can explain the onset and continuation of criminality.


Sampson and Laub's research indicates that building __________ and strong social bonds reduces the likelihood of long-term deviance.

social capital

Laub and Sampson identify life events that enable adult offenders to desist from crime. Accordingly, they identify transitions as short-term events embedded in


According to latent trait theory, when does a latent trait appear?

at birth or soon after

Which of the following statements regarding gender differences and the general theory of crime is accurate?

There is little evidence that males are more impulsive than females.

Because it assumes that human character is selfish, self-serving and hedonistic, the general theory of crime is criticized for

misreading human nature.

Gottfredson and Hirschi claim that the principles of self-control theory

can explain all varieties of criminal behavior.

Although criminal offenders are people predisposed to crime, they are not robots who commit crime without restraint. According to the general theory of crime, change in the frequency of criminal activity is a function of

change in criminal opportunity.

Which empirical evidence supports the general theory of crime?

Low self-control is significantly related to antisocial behavior and the association can be seen regardless of culture or national setting.

Because they combine personal, social, socialization, cognitive, and situational factors, life course theories are described as

integrated theories

Personal traits can account for violent behavior. Psychologist Dorothy Ottnow Lewis found that murderous youths often suffer signs of ___________

neurological impairments.

Ineffective families have been linked to persistent violent offending. Which is not a factor characteristic of an ineffective family?

parental involvement

Children exposed to violence at home, at school, or in the environment may adopt violent methods themselves. Which children are most likely to engage in violent behavior?

children exposed to violence in the home and who live in a neighborhood with high violence rates

In their study of homicide, Kubrin and Weitzer found that when police and other agencies of formal social control are seen as ___________ some people are willing to take the law into their own hands and commit what the researchers called a "cultural retaliatory homicide."

weak and devalued

According to Groth, every rape encounter contains at least one of three elements: anger, power, or


When Diane Whipple died after being attacked by two large dogs in the hallway of her apartment building, one of the dogs' owners was convicted of manslaughter based on the legal principle of

deliberate indifference.

One type of interpersonal violence is child abuse. Which age group suffers the highest rate of child abuse victimization?

children in the age group of birth to one year old

A number of research studies have been focused on armed robbers. What do these studies indicate?

Robbers are rational decision makers who look for easy prey.

Frederick Lawrence argues that criminals motivated by bias deserve to be punished more severely than those who commit identical crimes for other motives. Why is this so?

Bias crimes should be punished more severely for all these reasons.

____ are typically located in rural areas and attack military, police, and government targets in an effort to unseat or replace the existing government.


Which type of terrorism uses violence to frighten those in power and their supporters in order to replace the existing government with a regime that holds acceptable political or religious views?

revolutionary terrorism

_____ and the use of government troops to destroy political opposition parties are often associated with Latin American political terrorism.

Death squads

Hamas and Hezbollah are examples of ____ terrorist groups - terrorists that promote the interests of a minority, ethnic, or religious group that believes it has been persecuted under majority rule and wishes to carve out its own independent homeland.


According to the alienation view of terrorist motivation, terrorists are relatively "ordinary" people who believe that a suicide mission will

cleanse them of the corruption of the modern world.

In response to the 9/11 terrorist attacks, Congress passed the USA Patriot Act, creating a ________ who was charged with coordinating data from the nation's primary intelligence-gathering agencies.

Director of National Intelligence

Fifteenth and sixteenth century foreign mercenary troops looted and pillaged the English and French country sides because they felt such theft was

a rightful part of their pay.

During the eighteenth century _______ moved freely in sparsely populated areas and transported stolen goods, such as gems, gold, and spices, without paying tax or duty.


Criminologists suspect that, of the millions of property and theft-related crimes that occur each year, most are committed by

occasional criminals.

______ criminals often deny their criminality. These offenders are most likely to respond to the general deterrent effect of the law.


A few professionals make a substantial living by passing bad checks. Lemert referred to these persons as

systematic forgers.

The FBI's Uniform Crime Report recorded 6.5 million acts of larceny in 2008, which reflects

a continued steep decline over the past decade.

English judges created the concept of constructive possession to get around the element of

trespass in the taking.

How a larceny is committed can affect its definition. It is automatically considered grand larceny to

steal a firearm from a home or car.

Sometimes adolescents are coerced into shoplifting by older peers. This type of shoplifter is termed a

proxy shoplifter.

Why have shoplifting incidents increased dramatically in the past twenty years?

Because popular retailers rely on highly visible merchandise displays to attract purchasers.

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