Introduction to U.S. Government Final Exam Studyguide
An overview of everything studied over the course of the semester in Introduction to U.S. Government.
specific violations of political liberties
The list of complaints against King George III and his ministers in the Declaration of Independence spoke of what?
An important theme in the Declaration of Independence is that governments ____ bound by their own laws.
too narrow and could not be easily enforced
The powers granted to the government by the Articles of Confederation (the nation's first government) were ____________________.
The approval of _______ the member states was necessary in order to amend the Articles of Confederation.
What event took place in January 1787 and had a major impact on the formation and success of the Constitutional Convention by encouraging attendance by delegates fearing the collapse of state governments?
The Constitutional Convention of 1787 was held in:
The delegates from what state proposed the Great Compromise?
few important powers
The Articles of Confederation granted the central government a _______________, but no vast powers.
The Virginia Plan and the New Jersey Plan were ____ the same.
"The Federalist" papers
Alexander Hamilton, John Jay, and James Madison were the authors of _________________.
Congress is a _____________ legislature.
the separation of powers and federalism
The American version of representative democracy was based on two major principles. They are __________________.
excesses of democracy, or pure majority rule, that they had seen in their own states.
The framers deliberately chose a republican, or representative, form of government with divided powers because they feared the
There are __ branches to our federal government.
The primary author of the United States Constitution was ____________.
The __________ Amendment granted the states much police power.
_______________ was not present at the Constitutional Convention when the U.S. Constitution was written.
The Antifederalists voiced concerns about a strong national government, including the fear that the government would tax it's citizens heavily. Their fears have been largely __________.
Articles of Confederation
The first governing document of the United States was the
original U.S. Constitution
The __________________ included specific guarantees of individual liberties including: privilege of the Writ of Habeas Corpus, Prohibition of a bill of attainder, and Prohibition of ex post facto laws.
How many people attended the Second Continental Congress (signing of the Declaration of Independence)?
How many people attended the Constitutional Convention where the U.S. Constitution was signed?
Without the Bill of Rights, the states would/would not have ratified Constitution?
True/False The term "United States of America" is found only in the U.S. Constitution.
a 2/3 approval vote of the Senate and the House of Reps plus 3/4 of the states is needed.
In order to amend the Constitution:
True/False: The Bill of Rights was intended to limit the power of the federal government.
a federal system
A system of government in which a national government and state governments share power within the same system is:
the "Necessary and Proper" Clause and the "Elastic" Clause
The language in Article I of the U.S. Constitution that Congress shall have the power to "make all laws which shall be necessary and proper for carrying into execution the foregoing powers" is commonly referred to as what?
True/False: Federalism was intended to protect personal liberties.
When the national government delegates functions such as welfare, health care, and job training to the states, it is referred to as:
True/False: States do NOT have the right of nullification.
_______________ is a view of federalism in which the national and state governments are separate and independent from each other.
True/False: Most mandates concern civil rights and environmental protection.
True/False: Since the adoption of the U.S. Constitution in 1787, the single most persistent source of political conflict has been the relations between the national and state governments.
McCulloch v. Maryland
Which court decision established the national government's supremacy over the states?
True/False: Land grants were designed to finance school construction and educational expenses.
True/False: Most commerce is regulated at the national/federal era.
use the funds at their own discretion.
A block grant is a transfer of cash from the national government to state or local governments in which those governments
A loose collection of states in which the principal power lies at the individual state level is known as:
The Americans with Disabilities Act enacted by Congress in 1990, which required all businesses and state and local governments to provide the disabled with equal access to services, employment, buildings, and transportation systems, is an example of what?
the clear and present danger test
During World War I, Charles Schenck violated the Espionage Act by circulating materials designed to obstruct the draft. The test to determine whether the First Amendment protected him was:
initiating legal action
The NAACP's most important role in the civil rights movement has been what?
Principles themselves may be in conflict with culture.
Civil liberties become a major issue for all of the following reasons except what?
that the libelous statement was false; that the libelous statement damaged the reputation or character of another person
To find someone guilty of libel, one must show ____________ and _______________.
apply the Bill of Rights to the states
The Fourteenth Amendment was eventually used to:
True/False: The right of free speech or expression, although not absolute, enjoys a higher status than the other rights granted by the U.S. Constitution.
True/False: Although we often think of "civil liberties" as a set of principles that protect the freedoms of all of us all of the time, the U.S. Constitution and the Bill of Rights actually contain a list of competing rights and duties.
True/False: The Bill of Rights was originally intended to limit the powers of only the federal government.
What was the rule established by the U.S. Supreme Court in Mapp v. Ohio (1961) that evidence gathered in violation of the U.S. Constitution cannot be used in a trial—it must be excluded?
things in other rooms of the house
During an arrest, the police may legally search all of the following except:
involvement must have a secular purpose, primary effect neither advances nor inhibits religion, does not foster an excessive government entanglement with religion
The three-part test recently developed by U.S. Supreme Court in Lemon v. Kurtzman (1971) to decide under what circumstances government involvement in religious activities is proper (i.e., constitutional) include which of the following?
True/False: In most instances the U.S. Supreme Court tended to uphold legislation passed during times of and as a result of various crises that restricted the liberty of some persons.
True/False: Beginning in the mid-1960s, the Supreme Count began to rule that there was NO zone of individual privacy into which the government could NOT intrude.
True/False: The pertinent question regarding civil rights is not whether the government has the authority to treat different people differently; it is whether such differences in treatment are reasonable.
Civil Rights Act of 1964
Probably the most significant and far reaching of all legislation enacted surrounding the civil rights movement was what?
De Jure Segregation
What is another name for segregation created by law, such as, a school district establishing a blacks-only school to teach all black children and a whites-only school to teach all white children?
Strict Scrutiny Standard
What is the standard by which the U.S. Supreme Court judges suspect classifications, such as, race, when determining whether there is alleged discrimination against those classifications?
True/False: The primary effect of the Hyde Amendment was to deny Medicaid funds for abortions for low income women.
A distinctive and patterned way of thinking about how political and economic life ought to be carried out.
More or less consistent sets of views concerning the policies government ought to pursue; a comprehensive set of political, economic, and social views or ideas concerned with the form and role of government, e.g., conservative, liberal, or radical
The sense that citizens have the capacity to understand and influence political events.
"Wealth of Nations"
the minimum requirement of a democracy
A degree of tolerance toward political discussion without too much oppression is:
In the 1960s President ____________ Great Society moved beyond the New Deal.
compromise is almost impossible
One of the ways in which the culture war differs from other political disputes is that:
The most important source of political values in the United States is probably what?
Liberalism can be traced to _____________.
The adversarial, contentious spirit of U.S. society is related most closely to Americans' belief in:
Religious diversity in the United States was largely the result of the absence of a(n):
True/False: Populism was a reaction by farmers, especially against railroads and banks.
Orthodox and progressive
What are the two primary opposing camps in the American "culture war?"
True/False: In a comparative study, political scientists Almond and Verba found that Americans had a stronger sense of civic duty than the citizens of the other countries surveyed.
Protestant (work) ethic
The notion that individuals should work hard, save their money, and avoid dependence on the state is sometimes referred to as the:
Alexis de Tocqueville
Who was the French observer who noted the influence of Democracy in a variety of contexts?
a sovereign power
According to the text, ________________ is essential to protect people from one another.
True/False: According to the text, when economic or occupational self-interest is at stake, most people press for programs that serve the broader interests of the nation as a whole.
Genuine competition for leadership
What is the key to the success of a representative democracy?
True/False: According to the text, governments do NOT really have to protect citizens against threats from other societies or governments.
True/False: Political authority conferred by law, public opinion, or constitution is referred to as legitimacy.
Placing an issue on the governmental agenda and deciding what to do about it once it's there
Policymaking involves which stage(s)?
True/False: Karl Marx, C. Wright Mills, and Max Weber are all an important source of theories explaining political elites.
True/False: The Senate is the only institution that has NOT played an increasingly important role in the agenda-setting process in government.
True/False: Every government policy goes through a formal evaluation procedure.
True/False: The role of the National Security Council is to coordinate the overseas activities of various federal agencies.
True/False: The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) is more an advisory than a command body.
four separate and competing military branches
Congress's desire to ensure civilian control of the military after World War II led it to create:
The uniformed heads of each of the military services, plus a chairman and a non-voting vice-chairman.
The Joint Chiefs of Staff (JCS) include
Issues regarding a nuclear-test-ban treaty, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) Alliance, and a Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty (SALT) agreement are all examples of:
Department of Defense
The National Security Act of 1947 created what?
National Security Council.
Coordination of the different agencies that have overseas activities is handled by the:
The National Security Council is chaired by the:
True/False: The U.S. Supreme Court has fairly consistently supported the view that the federal government has powers in the conduct of foreign and military policy beyond those specifically mentioned in the Constitution.
True/False: Foreign policy takes many forms—discussions are held, treaties are signed, organizations are joined—but in many cases it depends on the ability to use military force.
the people's branch
Congress is sometimes referred to as:
The House of Representatives is currently made up of how many members?
True/False: The Constitution does not say anything about congressional districts, so it has been up to Congress to decide how many representatives each state would have (provided that each state had at least one).
A bill that has many nongermane amendments tacked on is called a:
get a bill stalled in committee onto the floor
A discharge petition is used by the House of Representatives to:
Speaker of the House
Who is first in line to preside over the affairs of the House of Representatives?
What is an association of members of Congress created to advocate a political ideology or a regional or economic interest?
What is the name of the problem that arose in history whereby boundaries of political districts for seats in the House of Representatives were drawn in such a manner that districts were very unequal in population?
Vice President of the United States
Who is first in line to preside over the affairs of the Senate?
True/False: A result of the recent polarization of Congress is that members of Congress (especially in the House) are more likely to challenge, investigate, and denounce each other.
Bills that give tangible benefits (such as, highways, dams, post offices) to constituents in hope of winning their votes in return are called what?
majority party whip
A member of the Senate has just been elected to a position that requires him to keep the majority leader informed about the opinions of other party members. He has just been elected:
They must originate in the House of Representatives.
Which of the following statements about revenue bills is correct?
If you wished to study the real leadership office in the Senate, you would most likely focus on the:
The ________ process allows the Speaker to send a bill to a second committee after the first committee is finished acting on it.
True/False: Most bills die in committee.
In the committees in both houses
Where is the real work of Congress done?
a conference committee.
When a bill passes the House and Senate in substantially different forms, the differences are resolved in:
A three-fifths majority vote in the Senate to end debate is called:
When members of Congress exchange votes to help each other it is known as:
politics and public opinion
The greatest source of presidential power is:
House of Representatives
If no candidate receives a majority of the Electoral College vote, the _______ selects the president.
the White House office, the Executive Office of the President, and the Cabinet
The ability of a presidential assistant to affect the president is governed by the rule of propinquity (i.e., proximity), and the three degrees of propinquity surrounding Presidential appointments include which of the following?
high crimes and misdemeanors
A president can be impeached for treason, bribery, and:
serve as commander in chief of the armed forces and take care that the laws be faithfully executed
The powers a President can exercise in his own right without formal legislative approval include
True/False: Many presidential nominees and appointees are identified as "in and outers" because they are part of the "revolving door" of hires exchanged between government, interest groups, and various law firms.
The president's budget must be prepared _________ before it is enacted.
True/False: A bill that is not signed or vetoed within ten (10) days while Congress is still in session becomes law automatically, without the president's approval.
to serve as acting president in the case of presidential disability, to name a new vice president if he is in charge, and the new vice president must be confirmed by a majority in Congress
The Twenty-fifth Amendment allows/requires the vice president
preside over the Senate
The constitutional duty of the vice president is to:
True/False: Senior White House staff members are typically drawn from the ranks of the president's campaign.
True/False: The U.S. Constitution DOES NOT give to the president the power of executive privilege, i.e., a claim made by a president that he or she is not obliged to divulge private communications between himself/herself and his/her principal advisers (a privilege of confidentiality).
make policies that are not spelled out in advance by laws
When the text speaks of the discretionary authority of appointed officials, it means their authority to:
True/False: There are 15 major departments (including the newly created Department of Homeland Security established after the September 11, 2001, terrorist attacks) that compose the Presidential Cabinet, and by custom, cabinet officers are the heads of these departments; the president appoints the heads of the cabinet departments, and the Senate must consent to these appointments.
True/False: The Pendleton Act called for the transfer of jobs from patronage to merit.
True/False: The power of the bureaucracy depends less on its size and more on the extent of its discretionary authority.
The term for federal officials who are appointed only after they have passed a written examination administered by the Office of Personnel Management (OPM) or met certain selection criteria, such as, training, educational attainments, or prior experiences, devised by the hiring agency and approved by the OPM is called what?
True/False: The U.S. Constitution clearly provides for the creation by the president of departments and bureaus to carry out the laws created by Congress.
government-wide constraints on bureaucracy
The Administrative Procedure Act (1946) and Freedom of Information Act (1966) are examples of what?
fourth branch of government
Bureaucracies are often considered the:
A personal attribute that has been shown to have a clear effect on bureaucratic behavior is:
When congressional committees require that agency decisions be submitted to them before the agency implements them, the committees are exercising the power of:
related state agencies
Most federal agencies must share their functions with whom/what?
Civil Service Reform Act
The __________ was intended to defend the merit principle and to provide incentives for high-quality work.
True/False: Congress does not have the power to compel an individual to appear before a committee during an investigation.
Which Act banned civil servants from participating in partisan political activity?
issuing a name request
Using the buddy system, an agency can circumvent the usual OPM search process by:
True/False: Most of the files and records of agencies cannot be inspected by members of the public.
The collection of interest groups, think tanks, policy experts, news reporters, and congressional committees that try to influence agencies are called:
created only the Supreme Court.
It does not indicate how large the Court should be.
What does the U.S. Constitution have to say about the size of the Supreme Court?
The right of the federal courts to declare laws of Congress and acts of the executive branch void and unenforceable if they are judged to be in conflict with the Constitution is called what?
True/False: The solicitor general of the United States is usually the government's lawyer before the Supreme Court.
all cases involving citizens of the same state
Which of the following IS NOT a type of case federal courts can hear ("have jurisdiction over")?
citizens of different states
A diversity case is one involving whom or what?
True/False: There is no screening of candidates for the federal bench by the American Bar Association because the Bar Association is private.
True/False: The Chief Justice of the U.S. Supreme Court is John Roberts.
True/False: Of the various factors that influence a president's choice in filling a vacancy on the Supreme Court, the ideology of the nominee has been the least important.
True/False: Some critics of judicial review charge that it encourages citizens to rely on judges and NOT the political process to protect their rights.
True/False: Congress can change the jurisdiction of federal courts.
This document sets forth the facts of a case being appealed to an appellate court, such as the U.S. Supreme Court, summaries the lower-court decision, gives the arguments for the side represented by the lawyer(s) that wrote the document, and discusses the other cases that the Court has decided bear on the issue.
In addition to the arguments made by lawyers for the two sides in a case, written briefs and even oral arguments may also be offered by a "friend of the court", which is what this phrase means.
Per Curiam opinion
This type of court opinion is usually brief and unsigned, and it usually involves decisions that are more procedural in nature, such as, rulings on motions or court rules.
Opinion of the Court
This type of court opinion is the written opinion explaining the majority's view of the decision reached. If the chief justice is in the majority, he will either write the opinion or assign the task to a justice who agrees with him. If is in the minority, the senior justice on the majority side will decide who writes the Court's opinion.
This type of opinion is written by one or more justices who agree with the majority's conclusion but for different reasons that they wish to express.
This type of opinion reflects the opinion of the justices on the minority's (losing) side.
How many federal circuit courts of appeal exist today (including any in the District of Columbia)?
requiring the losing defendant to pay court
Fee shifting refers to:
The U.S. Supreme Court is currently made up of how many members/judges?
A case on appeal reaches the Supreme Court via a writ of what?
How many federal district courts (i.e., federal trial courts) exist today?
controversies involving the United States and a state, controversies involving 2 or more states, controversies involving foreign ambassadors and other diplomats
The U. S. Supreme Court has original jurisdiction over which of the following?