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148 terms

Biology 102 Final - Old Test Questions

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punctuated equilibrium
A pattern of evolution in which most change in appearance takes place during a relatively short period of time fits the ______ model of speciation.
taxonomy
The science of naming, identifying, and classifying organisms is called ______.
Founder effect
Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark on this population?
chance
Genetic drift is the result of ______.
mitochondria and chloroplasts
According to the theory of endosymbiosis, which organelles evolved from small prokaryotes that established residence within other, larger prokaryotes?
common ancestry
Homology is evidence of ______.
RNA is capable of self-replication; DNA is not.
Why is RNA thought to have been the first genetic material?
Pangea
What name is given to the single supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic?
strains of bacteria that are resistant to these drugs will become more widespread
Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.
The use of prokaryotes to treat sewage
______ is an example of bioremediation.
natural selection
The figure below shows what happens in insect populations when crops are sprayed with insecticides. This is an example of ______.
Eukarya
Which one of the following is the only domain that contains eukaryotes?
Cell walls are made primarily of peptidoglycan.
While examining a rock surface, you have discovered an interesting new organism. Which of the following criteria will allow you to classify the organism as belonging to Bacteria but not Archaea or Eukarya?
The population is not evolving.
Which of the following is a characteristic of a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?
Systematics
______ is the study of the evolutionary relationships of organisms, past and present.
natural selection
In The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was _____.
stabilizing selection
Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation?
genetics and evolutionary biology
The modern synthesis was a fusion of ______.
an exaptation
Feathers in birds appear to have first evolved for insulation but later conveyed a new advantage in helping create light aerodynamic surfaces. This switch in function is an example of ______.
protists
Eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants are classified in a "catch-all" category called ______.
gene pool
All of the alleles of all of the genes within a population make up that population's ______.
endotoxins and exotoxins
Which of the following include the two classes of poisons produced by pathogenic bacteria?
bacteria that only reproduce asexually
The biological species concept cannot be applied to ______.
spontaneous generation
The idea that life regularly arises from nonliving matter is referred to as ______.
sapiens
Which of the following is a species name?
a process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and
reproduce than other individuals
Natural selection can be defined as ______.
Peahens choose to mate with peacocks that have the most beautiful tails.
Which of the following is an example of sexual selection?
population
The smallest unit of evolution is the ______.
domain Archaea
Which prokaryotic group is most closely related to eukaryotes?
prokaryotes
What organisms are most numerous on Earth?
abiotic synthesis of monomers, such as amino acids and nucleotides
What was the first stage of the process that led to the abiotic origin of life?
apicomplexans
Which protozoan group consists solely of parasitic forms?
reproductive success
What does Darwinian fitness measure?
being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring
On what basis are populations assigned to the same biological species?
endospores
Which of the following would likely be the most difficult to kill were you to can your own food?
pre-zygotic barrier
A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of ______.
rod-shaped
Bacilli are ______ prokaryotes.
A population of squirrels is separated by the Grand Canyon. Through time the two
subpopulations evolve into two distinct species.
Which of the following describes allopatric speciation?
photoautotrophs
All prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that photosynthesize fit into which nutritional category?
prokaryotic...eukaryotic
The two basic types of cells are ______ and ______.
bones of extinct whales
Which of the following is a component of the fossil record?
biofilm
A slimy layer of bacteria coating a surface is also known as a ________.
cell theory
What theory states that all living things are composed of cells?
speciation
New branches form on the tree of life through the process of _____.
mutation
The original source of all genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural selection is ______.
oxygen
The absence of ______ in the primitive atmosphere was essential to the origin of life on Earth.
genus, family, order, class, phylum
Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?
convergent evolution
Analogous structures are evidence of ______.
binary fission
Prokaryotes reproduce by means of ______.
the amniotic egg
Characteristics shared by both snakes and birds include ______.
cartilaginous fish
Sharks are a type of ______.
insects
______ are the most diverse group of arthropods.
eating more beef and less chicken
Which of the following actions would increase your carbon footprint?
octopus
A(n) ______ is an example of a mollusc that does not have a shell.
cuticle
The ______ helps plants retain water.
seeds
Which of these adaptations to a terrestrial existence evolved most recently?
C02 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth
The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is primarily due to ______.
a rock
Which of the following is abiotic?
tundra
Permafrost, or permanently frozen subsoil, characterizes _____.
upright posture
Which of these human characteristics evolved first?
deserts
Water-storing plants and deeply-rooted shrubs are plants that characterize ______.
increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere
The effect of deforestation is to ______.
regions where fresh water and salt water mix
What are estuaries?
benthic realm
What name is given to the seafloor?
having 4 feet
What does the term tetrapod mean?
sponges lack true tissues
How do sponges differ from all other animals?
Africa
Where did humans first appear?
medusa
The mobile stage of the cnidarian life cycle is the ______ stage.
ecosystem
What level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?
ferns
______ are seedless vascular plants.
Monotremes
______ are the mammalian group that lay eggs.
interactions between organisms and their environments
Ecology is the study of ______.
pelagic realm
What name is given to the open ocean?
They all have a notochord sometime during the life cycle.
Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates?
help bony fish maintain buoyancy
Swim bladders ______.
Cnidarians
______ have radial symmetry.
They are harder to see and thus less likely to be eaten than other fruits.
Why does it make sense that many fruits are green when their seeds are immature?
cell walls . . . cellulose . . . chitin
Like plants, fungi have ______; however, in plants they are composed of ______, whereas in fungi they are composed of ______.
chaparral
Which of these biomes is maintained by fire?
haploid...diploid
Gametophytes are ______; sporophytes are ______.
threadlike filaments that make up fungal bodies
What are hyphae?
sunlight
What is the primary source of energy for nearly all of Earth's ecosystems?
mycorrhizae
Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi are called ______.
bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms
Which of the following correctly illustrates the sequence of the origin of modern groups of plants?
metamorphisis
What is the name given to the process by which a larva develops into an adult?
photic zone
In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the region where photosynthesis can occur?
they decompose organic material
What important role do fungi play in many ecosystems?
head, thorax and abdomen
Most adult insects have three major body parts or sections. They are the
crustaceans
Nearly all ______ are aquatic.
skull and backbone
Unique features of vertebrates include the presence of a(n) ______.
completely lined with tissue derived from mesoderm
A true coelom is ______.
oceans
Which of the following can moderate climate by absorbing heat when the air is warm and releasing heat when the air is cold?
before/after rain
With regard to the environment as a whole, when is the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?
absence of jaws
Among vertebrates, the unique feature of lampreys and hagfish is the ______.
lancelet
A(n) ______ is an example of an invertebrate chordate.
a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area
What is a population?
angiosperms
Nearly all food plants are classified as ______.
heterotrophs
Nutritionally, all fungi are ______.
may experience problems with the solute concentration of the surrounding fluid
Aquatic organisms ______.
counter the loss of biodiversity
The primary goal of conservation biology is to ___.
There is insufficient energy to support more levels
Why are most energy pyramids limited to 3-5 levels?
sustain entire ecosystems
Modern conservation science increasingly aims to ___.
landscape
An assemblage of interacting ecosystems is a _____.
advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops
Integrated pest management ____
decomposers
Which of these convert organic matter to inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms?
secondary consumer
In the food chain (grass -> antelope -> human -> lion), the human is ____
age structures
A demographic tool used to predict a populations future growth is
population density
The number of individuals of a population unit per area is the
when a population oscillates around the carry capacity of its environment
In terms of population, what is boom and bust cycling?
omnivores
Humans are ____
endemic
Species only found in one area of the earth are called _____ species
is as much as 1,000 times higher than it has been in the last 100,000 years
The present rate of species loss _____
have long lives
Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history typically ______
rock
The major abiotic reservoir for phosphorous is
primary productivity
Rate at which organic matter is produced into an ecosystem is its _____
the relative abundance of different species
In order to asses the species diversity of a community, you would need to know the different number of species as well as
CO2
What form of carbon is incorporated into organic matter by producers?
producers
Organisms at the first trophic level are ____
organic material in
Biomass is the amount of _____ in an ecosystem
shows Americans consume disproportionate amounts
The ecological footprint of the USA _____
A food web
Bears eat berries, etc....
are in danger of extinction
The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that _____
a density-independent factor
An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of
relatively constant death rate
Which of these describes a Type II survivorship curve?
undergo succession
As a result of disturbance, a community will ____
exponential
In the absence of limiting factors, a population's growth follows a _____ growth model.
bacteria
Which of these organisms convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to a form that can be utilized by plants?
are near 0, population size is stable
In most developed countries, overall population growth rates _____
producers
Which of these organisms are ultimately responsible.....
density-dependent factor
The death by bubonic plague...
few offspring and good parental care
Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ____
all of the above
Introduced species can have important effects on biological communities by ____
biophilia
E.O. Wilson coined the term....
biological control
The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population is ____
cannot run away from herbivores
Most plants have a variety of chemicals, spines and thorns because the plants _____
biodiversity hot spots
Small areas that have a large number of endangered species....
group of same species individuals that occupy the same general area
What is a population?
Carrying capacity
____ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support
decreasing food supply
Which of the following will decrease population size?
habitat destruction and fragmentation
Single greatest threat to biodiversity comes from ______
intraspecific
Competition among the same species is _____ competition
is a means of understanding resource availability and usage
An ecological footprint
niche
The sum total of a populations of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat constitutes its _____
energy flow is unidirectional, chemical elements can be recycled
What is one way that chemical flow and energy cycling differ?
involves all of the above
Sustainable development ____
unites otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat for a species
A movement corridor _____
potentially interacting populations of different kinds of organisms
A community is composed of
corals/algae
An example of mutualism....