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punctuated equilibrium

A pattern of evolution in which most change in appearance takes place during a relatively short period of time fits the ______ model of speciation.


The science of naming, identifying, and classifying organisms is called ______.

Founder effect

Thirty people are selected for a long-term mission to colonize a planet many light years away from Earth. The mission is successful and the population rapidly grows to several hundred individuals. However, certain genetic diseases are unusually common in this group, and their gene pool is quite different from that of the Earth population they have left behind. Which of the following phenomena has left its mark on this population?


Genetic drift is the result of ______.

mitochondria and chloroplasts

According to the theory of endosymbiosis, which organelles evolved from small prokaryotes that established residence within other, larger prokaryotes?

common ancestry

Homology is evidence of ______.

RNA is capable of self-replication; DNA is not.

Why is RNA thought to have been the first genetic material?


What name is given to the single supercontinent that formed near the end of the Paleozoic?

strains of bacteria that are resistant to these drugs will become more widespread

Scientists have warned doctors of the danger of their increasing use of antibiotics for treating minor illnesses. They are concerned because _____.

The use of prokaryotes to treat sewage

______ is an example of bioremediation.

natural selection

The figure below shows what happens in insect populations when crops are sprayed with insecticides. This is an example of ______.


Which one of the following is the only domain that contains eukaryotes?

Cell walls are made primarily of peptidoglycan.

While examining a rock surface, you have discovered an interesting new organism. Which of the following criteria will allow you to classify the organism as belonging to Bacteria but not Archaea or Eukarya?

The population is not evolving.

Which of the following is a characteristic of a population at Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium?


______ is the study of the evolutionary relationships of organisms, past and present.

natural selection

In The Origin of Species, Darwin argued that the mechanism of descent with modification was _____.

stabilizing selection

Which of the following is most likely to decrease genetic variation?

genetics and evolutionary biology

The modern synthesis was a fusion of ______.

an exaptation

Feathers in birds appear to have first evolved for insulation but later conveyed a new advantage in helping create light aerodynamic surfaces. This switch in function is an example of ______.


Eukaryotes that are not fungi, animals, or plants are classified in a "catch-all" category called ______.

gene pool

All of the alleles of all of the genes within a population make up that population's ______.

endotoxins and exotoxins

Which of the following include the two classes of poisons produced by pathogenic bacteria?

bacteria that only reproduce asexually

The biological species concept cannot be applied to ______.

spontaneous generation

The idea that life regularly arises from nonliving matter is referred to as ______.


Which of the following is a species name?

a process in which organisms with certain inherited traits are more likely to survive and
reproduce than other individuals

Natural selection can be defined as ______.

Peahens choose to mate with peacocks that have the most beautiful tails.

Which of the following is an example of sexual selection?


The smallest unit of evolution is the ______.

domain Archaea

Which prokaryotic group is most closely related to eukaryotes?


What organisms are most numerous on Earth?

abiotic synthesis of monomers, such as amino acids and nucleotides

What was the first stage of the process that led to the abiotic origin of life?


Which protozoan group consists solely of parasitic forms?

reproductive success

What does Darwinian fitness measure?

being able to interbreed and produce fertile offspring

On what basis are populations assigned to the same biological species?


Which of the following would likely be the most difficult to kill were you to can your own food?

pre-zygotic barrier

A reproductive barrier that prevents species from mating is an example of ______.


Bacilli are ______ prokaryotes.

A population of squirrels is separated by the Grand Canyon. Through time the two
subpopulations evolve into two distinct species.

Which of the following describes allopatric speciation?


All prokaryotic and eukaryotic organisms that photosynthesize fit into which nutritional category?


The two basic types of cells are ______ and ______.

bones of extinct whales

Which of the following is a component of the fossil record?


A slimy layer of bacteria coating a surface is also known as a ________.

cell theory

What theory states that all living things are composed of cells?


New branches form on the tree of life through the process of _____.


The original source of all genetic variation that serves as the raw material for natural selection is ______.


The absence of ______ in the primitive atmosphere was essential to the origin of life on Earth.

genus, family, order, class, phylum

Which of the following options lists taxonomic categories in the correct order from most specific to most general?

convergent evolution

Analogous structures are evidence of ______.

binary fission

Prokaryotes reproduce by means of ______.

the amniotic egg

Characteristics shared by both snakes and birds include ______.

cartilaginous fish

Sharks are a type of ______.


______ are the most diverse group of arthropods.

eating more beef and less chicken

Which of the following actions would increase your carbon footprint?


A(n) ______ is an example of a mollusc that does not have a shell.


The ______ helps plants retain water.


Which of these adaptations to a terrestrial existence evolved most recently?

C02 and other greenhouse gases slowing the escape of heat from Earth

The greenhouse effect causes an increase in global temperatures. This increase is primarily due to ______.

a rock

Which of the following is abiotic?


Permafrost, or permanently frozen subsoil, characterizes _____.

upright posture

Which of these human characteristics evolved first?


Water-storing plants and deeply-rooted shrubs are plants that characterize ______.

increase the amount of carbon dioxide in the atmosphere

The effect of deforestation is to ______.

regions where fresh water and salt water mix

What are estuaries?

benthic realm

What name is given to the seafloor?

having 4 feet

What does the term tetrapod mean?

sponges lack true tissues

How do sponges differ from all other animals?


Where did humans first appear?


The mobile stage of the cnidarian life cycle is the ______ stage.


What level of ecology is concerned with both the biotic and abiotic aspects of an environment?


______ are seedless vascular plants.


______ are the mammalian group that lay eggs.

interactions between organisms and their environments

Ecology is the study of ______.

pelagic realm

What name is given to the open ocean?

They all have a notochord sometime during the life cycle.

Which of the following is a characteristic of all chordates?

help bony fish maintain buoyancy

Swim bladders ______.


______ have radial symmetry.

They are harder to see and thus less likely to be eaten than other fruits.

Why does it make sense that many fruits are green when their seeds are immature?

cell walls . . . cellulose . . . chitin

Like plants, fungi have ______; however, in plants they are composed of ______, whereas in fungi they are composed of ______.


Which of these biomes is maintained by fire?


Gametophytes are ______; sporophytes are ______.

threadlike filaments that make up fungal bodies

What are hyphae?


What is the primary source of energy for nearly all of Earth's ecosystems?


Mutualistic associations of plant roots and fungi are called ______.

bryophytes, ferns, gymnosperms, angiosperms

Which of the following correctly illustrates the sequence of the origin of modern groups of plants?


What is the name given to the process by which a larva develops into an adult?

photic zone

In an aquatic ecosystem, what name is given to the region where photosynthesis can occur?

they decompose organic material

What important role do fungi play in many ecosystems?

head, thorax and abdomen

Most adult insects have three major body parts or sections. They are the


Nearly all ______ are aquatic.

skull and backbone

Unique features of vertebrates include the presence of a(n) ______.

completely lined with tissue derived from mesoderm

A true coelom is ______.


Which of the following can moderate climate by absorbing heat when the air is warm and releasing heat when the air is cold?

before/after rain

With regard to the environment as a whole, when is the worst time to apply pesticide to your lawn?

absence of jaws

Among vertebrates, the unique feature of lampreys and hagfish is the ______.


A(n) ______ is an example of an invertebrate chordate.

a group of organisms of the same species living in a particular geographic area

What is a population?


Nearly all food plants are classified as ______.


Nutritionally, all fungi are ______.

may experience problems with the solute concentration of the surrounding fluid

Aquatic organisms ______.

counter the loss of biodiversity

The primary goal of conservation biology is to ___.

There is insufficient energy to support more levels

Why are most energy pyramids limited to 3-5 levels?

sustain entire ecosystems

Modern conservation science increasingly aims to ___.


An assemblage of interacting ecosystems is a _____.

advocates mixed-species plantings and rotating crops

Integrated pest management ____


Which of these convert organic matter to inorganic matter by breaking down dead organisms?

secondary consumer

In the food chain (grass -> antelope -> human -> lion), the human is ____

age structures

A demographic tool used to predict a populations future growth is

population density

The number of individuals of a population unit per area is the

when a population oscillates around the carry capacity of its environment

In terms of population, what is boom and bust cycling?


Humans are ____


Species only found in one area of the earth are called _____ species

is as much as 1,000 times higher than it has been in the last 100,000 years

The present rate of species loss _____

have long lives

Species that exhibit an equilibrial life history typically ______


The major abiotic reservoir for phosphorous is

primary productivity

Rate at which organic matter is produced into an ecosystem is its _____

the relative abundance of different species

In order to asses the species diversity of a community, you would need to know the different number of species as well as


What form of carbon is incorporated into organic matter by producers?


Organisms at the first trophic level are ____

organic material in

Biomass is the amount of _____ in an ecosystem

shows Americans consume disproportionate amounts

The ecological footprint of the USA _____

A food web

Bears eat berries, etc....

are in danger of extinction

The Endangered Species Act aims to help protect species that _____

a density-independent factor

An unexpected freeze that kills a population of chipmunks is an example of

relatively constant death rate

Which of these describes a Type II survivorship curve?

undergo succession

As a result of disturbance, a community will ____


In the absence of limiting factors, a population's growth follows a _____ growth model.


Which of these organisms convert atmospheric nitrogen gas to a form that can be utilized by plants?

are near 0, population size is stable

In most developed countries, overall population growth rates _____


Which of these organisms are ultimately responsible.....

density-dependent factor

The death by bubonic plague...

few offspring and good parental care

Type I survivorship curves are typical of species that exhibit ____

all of the above

Introduced species can have important effects on biological communities by ____


E.O. Wilson coined the term....

biological control

The intentional release of a natural enemy to attack a pest population is ____

cannot run away from herbivores

Most plants have a variety of chemicals, spines and thorns because the plants _____

biodiversity hot spots

Small areas that have a large number of endangered species....

group of same species individuals that occupy the same general area

What is a population?

Carrying capacity

____ is the maximum population size that a particular habitat can support

decreasing food supply

Which of the following will decrease population size?

habitat destruction and fragmentation

Single greatest threat to biodiversity comes from ______


Competition among the same species is _____ competition

is a means of understanding resource availability and usage

An ecological footprint


The sum total of a populations of the biotic and abiotic resources of its habitat constitutes its _____

energy flow is unidirectional, chemical elements can be recycled

What is one way that chemical flow and energy cycling differ?

involves all of the above

Sustainable development ____

unites otherwise isolated patches of quality habitat for a species

A movement corridor _____

potentially interacting populations of different kinds of organisms

A community is composed of


An example of mutualism....

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