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anatomy and physiology exam 5 prep (final)

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percept
The brain's integration of signals from sensory organs results in a(n)_______.
somatic nervous system
The division of the nervous system that exclusively controls skeletal muscles is the
ganglion
A collection of neuron cell bodies outside the central nervous system is called a
nuclei
Small nodules of gray matter deep within the brain are called________
epineurium
The membrane surrounding an entire nerve is called the
tentorium cerebellum
Which membranous structure separates the cerebral hemispheres from the cerebellum?
cerebrospinal fluid
The central canal of the spinal cord contains
anterior longitudinal fissure
The deep groove dividing the right and left portions of the ventral white matter is the
Superman is flying through heavy clouds and crashes right into an airplane. He hits his head and damages the Wernicke area of his brain. Because of this, once he gets back to Earth, he will not be able to:
Understand Lois Lane saying, "Are you okay, Superman?"
posterior association cortex
Information from different senses is integrated in the
pineal gland
What part of the diencephalon is responsible for the "jet lag" you feel when you fly from one time zone to another?
medulla oblongata
Nuclei in the _________ regulate heartbeat and respiration rates
trigeminal
The _________ nerve is the main sensory nerve of the face and head
shoulder
The brachial plexus supplies motor impulses to the muscles of the
1
How many coccygeal nerves are there?
hypothalamus
In the autonomic nervous system, sensory and motor neurons carry signals to and away from the
a parasympathetic motor neuron and a cell lining the small intestine
Norepinephrine is the neurotransmitter used in synapses between
stimulation of skeletal muscle
Which of the following is NOT an action of the sympathetic nervous system?
terminal ganglia
The parasympathetic ganglia are called
thoracic and lumbar
The sympathetic motor neurons originate from cell bodies in the __________ regions of the spinal cord.
medulla oblongata
Signals from the right hemisphere of the brain travel through upper motor neurons and cross the ________ to run down the left lateral corticospinal tract to connect with lower motor neurons.
sensory signals travelling up the posterior column of your spinal cord
You're having a wonderful deep-tissue massage after a stressful day in clinic. The massage therapist is deliberately pushing, pulling, massaging all the sore muscles in your back. Ooooh. Aaaaaah. What signals are traveling where that allow you to feel oh so relaxed?
sensory receptor, sensory neuron, integration, motor neuron, effector
The correct order of impulse conduction through a reflex arc is
brain
The organ housed in the skull is the_______.
nerves
In the peripheral nervous system, bundles of axons are called_____.
white
Myelinated nervous tissue is described as ______matter.
blood-brain barrier
Some medications are prohibited from entering the brain because of the actions of the____.
cerebral aqueduct
The passage connecting the third and fourth ventricles is called the ___________.
Transverse
The two major fissures in the brain are the longitudinal fissure and the ______ fissure.
parietal
The _____lobes separate the frontal lobes and the occipital lobes.
midbrain
The most superior portion of the brain stem is called the ________________.
X
The production of gastric juices and the activity of the heart are controlled by cranial nerve number _________.
ventral
A neuron that leaves the spinal cord through the ___________ horn is carrying signals away from the central nervous system.
spinal
A reflex that does not pass through the brain is called a ____________ reflex.
True
Sensory neurons relay signals to the CNS.
True
The corpus callosum is composed of white matter.
False
The pituitary gland is part of the diencephalon.
True
Cerebrospinal fluid does not contain red blood cells.
False
Unimodal association areas integrate information from multiple senses.
False
The medulla oblongata is superior to the midbrain.
True
The cell bodies of sensory neurons are gathered in the dorsal root ganglion.
True
Thoracic nerve T10 exits the spinal cord immediately inferior to vertebra T10.
True
Smooth muscle is an effector of the autonomic nervous system
taste
Which of the following senses is a special sense?
proprioception
Which of the following senses is a general sense?
the cilantro flavor in the taco sauce
You are eating a taco as your plane descends into Houston airport. Which of the following would not be detected by the somatic senses?
pain
An analgesic is used to treat
proprioceptors
If you hold your arm motionless in the air, which receptors are most important in informing you of your hand position?
Golgi tendon organs
Your biceps is contracted. Which bodies inform you about the amount of muscle tension?
CN V (trigeminal)
Which of the following cranial nerves is not involved in conveying taste signals to the brain?
smell
Olfactory epithelium is involved in the sense of ____.
Taste
In what sensory modality are axon dendrites suspended in a mucus layer?
tympanic membrane
The medical term for the eardrum is the:
malleus
The ossicle of the ear that is in contact with the tympanic membrane is the
The waxy secretion of glands in the auditory canal
Cerumen is
pinna
What is the medical name for the organ of hearing on either side of your head?
vestibulocochlear nerve
The VIIIth cranial nerve is named the
In the semicircular canals
. If you had to find a crista ampullaris, where would you look?
maculae
While at the beach in Hawaii, a huge wave knocks you over and you tumble around in the surf. Big waves keep crashing over you, pushing you out to deeper water. You're struggling to regain your balance so you don't drown. What receptors are trying to help you determine "which way is up" and out of danger?
spinning movements
The semicircular canals detect ___.
maculae
You are descending in an elevator, but are otherwise motionless. Which sensory receptors will be activated?
choroid
The middle, pigmented layer of the eye is the___.
inferior oblique
The eye muscle that circles the bottom part of the eyeball is the ___.
optic disk
The "blind spot" is also called the___.
vascular tunic
The iris is part of the______
lacrimal gland
Tears are produced in the ___.
lateral oblique
Which of the following muscles is not one of the eye muscles?
fibrous tunic
Which tunic forms the cornea?
the lens to flatten
Tightening of the suspensory ligaments of the eye causes
cornea>aqueous humor>iris>lens>vitreous humor>retina
A ray of light hitting the eye follows which of the following pathways?
iris
Which of the following structures does NOT play a role in light refraction?
rods and cones
The receptors for vision are the ___.
rods
Rhodopsin is the pigment found in the ___.
Fovea centralis
Ocular cones are concentrated in what part of the eye?
first-order neuron
The first neuron to carry a signal from the sensory receptor to the brain is called the _____.
proprioceptors
Receptors in muscles, tendons, and joints that help judge the position of the body are called _______________.
thermoreceptors
Receptors that detect changes in temperature are called_____.
adaptation
A receptor may gradually stop responding to a continued mild stimulus. This process is called ___________.
Myelinated
Fast pain signals are carried to the brain via ______neurons.
basilar membrane
The wall between the cochlear duct and the tympanic duct below it is called the_________
ossicles
The three small bones of the middle ear are collectively called the ________________.
pinna or auricle
The external part of the ear is called the _______________.
auditory canal
The middle ear cavity and pharynx are connected by a channel called the _________.
cochlea
The coiled portion of the inner ear that contains the organ of hearing is the _______________.
auditory
Signals for hearing follow the ____pathway to the brain
macula
The otolith organs contain a sensory receptor called a _________.
backward
In forward acceleration, the cilia of hair cells in the utricle shift ______.
vitreous humor
The jellylike material that fills the eyeball behind the lens is called the ___________.
cornea
The transparent portion of the sclera that covers the anterior of the eye is the ___________.
retina
The tunic of the eye that contains photoreceptors is the ______________.
refraction
The bending of light rays as they pass through the eye is called _____________.
optic nerve
The cranial nerve that carries visual impulses from the retina to the brain is the ____________.
occipital
Visual impulses are transmitted from the retina to the cortex of the ___________ lobe.
False
The detection of a stimulus by a sensory receptor is called sensation.
False
The membranous labyrinth of the ear is filled with perilymph
False
The frequency of action potential firing determines how we perceive pitch.
True
Human tears contain antimicrobial agents.
lung capillaries
Which of the following vessels is part of the pulmonary circulation system?
epicardium
The outermost layer of the heart wall is called the
They easily conduct electrical signals
Which statement is true about autorhythmic cardiac cells?
aortic valve
Blood is prevented from flowing back into the left ventricle by the____.
aortic and pulmonary
The semilunar valves are the____.
coronary sinus
The ____ drains blood from the heart muscle
collects blood from the myocardium
The coronary sinus____.
right ventricle
Which chamber of the heart ejects blood to the pulmonary trunk?
left atrium
The heart chamber that receives blood from the lungs is the
left atrium
The left ventricle receives blood from the
stroke volume
The volume of blood ejected from each ventricle with each contraction is called the
ventricular systole
The atrioventricular valves are closed during the entire period of
the atria are contracting
Atrial systole occurs when
sinoatrial node, atrioventricular node, atrioventricular bundle, Purkinje fibers
The order in which an electrical signal travels through the heart is___.
sinoatrial node
The normal pacemaker of the heart is the
QRS complex
Which segment of an ECG tracing represents the end of the atrial action potential?
medulla oblongata
The autonomic nervous system activates a vasomotor center in the ____ to regulate blood pressure.
decrease the heart rate
Actions of the parasympathetic nervous system
muscle fiber length
Cardiac contraction strength is directly related to ____.
tunica interna
The walls of capillaries consist of _____
Oxygen content
Which of these is NOT a factor that determines resistance to blood flow in the vessels?
the precapillary sphincters are dilated
Blood will flow into a capillary bed when____.
portal system
A system in which blood circulates through two capillary beds before returning to the heart is called a(n)
ventricles
The lower chambers of the heart are called the _________________.
myocardium
The thick muscular layer of the heart wall is the ___________.
epicardium
The heart wall layer that is part of the pericardium is the _____________.
interatrial septum
The two upper chambers of the heart are separated by the ___________________.
chordae tendineae
The cords of fibrous tissue that attach to the free edges of valve leaflets are the _____ ____.
tricuspid
The right atrioventricular valve is also known as the _____________ valve.
semilunar
The aortic and pulmonary valves are collectively known as the ___________ valves.
coronary sinus
The ________returns blood from the coronary circulation to the right atrium.
systole
The ventricles contract during the cardiac cycle phase called ventricular____________.
cardiac output
The product of the stroke volume and the heart rate is called the ____________.
respiratory
Both the skeletal muscle pump and the ____pump aid the return of blood to the heart.
Diastolic
___ pressure is the lowest degree of pressure within the arteries
baroreceptors
Pressure receptors in the aorta called _______monitor blood pressure.
myocardial infarction
The medical term for a heart attack is ______________.
False
The apex of the heart is the top of the heart.
False
The valves through which blood leaves the heart are the atrioventricular valves.
True
Metarterioles are capillary bypasses
False
Constriction of arterioles will decrease blood pressure.