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45 terms

Chapter 14

Principals of Disease and Epidemiology
STUDY
PLAY
A commensal bacterium
May be an opportunistic pathogen
Which of the following statements is true?
A. Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together
B. Members of a symbiotic relationship cannot live without each other
C. A parasite is not in symbiosis with its host
D. Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together and benefiting from each other
E. At least one member must benefit in a symbiotic relationship
Symbiosis refers to different organisms living together
A nonsocomial infection is
Acquired during the course of hospitalization
The major significance of Koch's work was that
Microorganisms cause disease
Koch's postulates don't apply to all diseases because
Not all diseases are caused by microorganisms
Which of the following diseases is NOT spread by droplet infection?
Botulism
Mechanical transmission differs from biological transmission in that mechanical transmission
Doesn't involve specific diseases
Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A. Endemic - a disease that is constantly present in a population
B. Epidemic - fraction of the population having a disease at a specified time
C. Pandemic - a disease that affects a large number of people in the world in a short time
D. Sporadic - a disease that affects a population occasionally
E. Incidence - number of new cases of a disease
Epidemic - fraction of the population having a disease at a specific time
Which of these infections can cause septicemia?
Focal infection
Which type of infection can be caused by septicemia?
Systemic infection
Koch observed Bacillus anthracis multiplying in the blood of cattle. What is this condition called?
Septicemia
Which one of the following does NOT contribute to the incidence of nosocomial infections?
Gram-negative cell walls
Transient microbiota differ from normal microbiota because transient microbiota
Are present for a relatively short time
Which of the following statements about nosocomial infections is false?
The patient was infected before hospitalization
One effect of washing regularly with antibacterial agents is the removal of normal microbiota. This can result in
Increased suseptibility to disease
Which of the following is NOT a reservoir of infection?
All of the above can be reservoirs of infection
Which of the following is NOT a communicable disease?
Tetanus
Which of the following is a fomite?
A hypodermic needle
Which of the following statements about biological transmission is false?
Houseflies are an important vector
Which of the following definitions is incorrect?
A. Acute - a short-lasting primary infections
B. Inapparent - infection characteristic of a carrier state
C. Chronic - a disease that develops slowly and lasts for months
D. Primary infection - an initial illness
E. Secondary infection - a long lasting disease
Secondary infection - a long lasting illness
Symptoms of disease differ from signs of disease in that symptoms
Are changes felt by the patient
The science that deals with when diseases occur and how they are transmitted is called
Epidemiology
Figure 14.1 shows the incidence of influenza during a typical year. Which letter on the graph indicates the endemic level?
D
Constant (dotted line along bottom)
Emergence of infectious diseases can be due to all of the following EXCEPT
Microbes trying to cause disease
Which of the following pairs is mismatched?
A. Malaria - vector
B. Salmonellosis - vehicle transmission
C. Syphilis - direct contact
D. Influenza - droplet infection
E. All of the above are correctly matched
All of the above are correctly matched
Which of the following can contribute to postoperative infections?
All of the above
In Figure 14.2, what is the endemic level of rotavirus infections?
Approximately 10%
A cold transmitted by a facial tissue is an example of
Vehicle transmission
Influenza transmitted by an unprotected sneeze is an example of
Droplet transmission
A sexually transmitted disease is an example of
Direct contact
Gastroenteritis acquired from roast beef is an example of
Vehicle transmission
A needlestick is an example of
Fomite
Legionellosis transmitted by a grocery store mist machine is an example of
Vehicle transmission
Plague transmitted by a flea is an example of
Vector
The most likely mode of transmission of pneumonic plague between humans is
Droplet transmission
Situation 14.1 is an example of
A zoonosis
In Situation 14.1, the etiologic agent of the disease is
Coxiella burnetti
In Situation 14.1, the method of transmission of this disease was
Vehicle
Which one of the following is NOT an example of microbial antagonism?
Bacteria causing disease
The yeast Candida alicans does not normally cause disease because of
Antagonistic bacteria
Haemophilus bacteria require heme protein produced by Staphylococcus bacteria. This is an example of
Synergism
Which one of the following is NOT a zoonosis?
All of the above are zoonoses
Pseudomonas bacteria colonized the bile duct of a patient following his liver transplant surgery. This is an example of a
Nosocomial infection
The graph in Figure 14..3 shows the incidence of polio in the United States. The period between 1945 and 1955 indicates
An epidemic level
Which one of the following statements is false?
A. Antimicrobial therapy for hemodialysis-associated infections increases antibiotic resistance
B. S. aureus is differentiated from other mannitol + cocci by the coagulase test
C. The M in MRSA stands for mannitol
D. USA100 accounts for most hospital-acquired MRSA
E. USA300 accounts for most community-acquired MRSA
The M in MRSA stands for mannitol