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before an olfactory receptor can detect an odorant, it has to

bind to receptors in olfactory cilia

how would a molecule that mimics cAMP affect an olfactory receptor

-it would increase sodium permeability
-it would open chemically-gated sodium channels
-it would depolarize the olfactory receptor
-it could trigger an afferent action potential

gustatory receptors are located

on the surface of the tongue

which of the following lingual papillae has the largest number of taste buds

circumvallate papillae

a patient who experienced head trauma has lost the ability to taste spicy food. you should expect damage to cranial nerve ____


which of the following is not one of the six primary taste sensations


the taste sensation that is triggered by the amino acid glutamate is known as


all of the following are true of the fibrous tunic of the eye, except that it

produces aqueous humor

what structure changes the shape of the lens for far and near vision

ciliary body

the space between the iris and ciliary body and the lens is the

posterior chamber

the neural tunic of the eye

-contains ganglion cells
-contains the photoreceptor cells
-contains bipolar cells
-is the deepest layer of the eyeball

the human lens focuses light on the photoreceptor cells by

changing shape

the vitreous body

helps to stabilize the eye and give physical support to the retina

the space between the cornea and iris is the

anterior chamber

the shape of the lens is controlled by the

ciliary muscles

the transparent portion of the fibrous tunic is the


the part of the eye that determines eye color is the


the opening in the iris through which light passes is the


in the human eye, most refraction occurs when light passes through the


the ciliary muscles contract to

adjust the shape of the lens for near vision

which of the following descriptions best matches the term aqueous humor

excessive production may lead to glaucoma

if your vision is 20/15, this means that you can

see objects at 20 feet that individuals with normal eye sight can see at 15 feet

what structure regulates the amount of light that passes to the photoreceptors of the eye

ciliary muscle

the optic disc is a blind spot because

there are no photoreceptors in that area

there are three different types of cones, each one sensitive to different light energies. these cones are designated

red, green, blue

when all three cone populations are stimulated equally, we perceive


the first step in the process of photoreception is

absorption of a photon by a visual pigment

visual pigments are derivatives of the compound


a pigment synthesized from vitamin A is


which of the following is true about rhodopsin

-called visual purple
-is bleached during photoreception
-is the visual pigment in rods
-consist of opsin + retinal

having to adjust to a dark room after walking in from bright light is because

rods exposed to strong light need time to regenerate rhodopsin

the ____ ear collects sound waves and transmits them to the ____ ear, which contains auditory ossicles

outer; middle

the external acoustic meatus ends at

the tympanic membrane

the auditory ossicles connect the

tympanic membrane to the oval window

the vibrations received by the tympanic membrane are transferred to the oval window by the

auditory ossicles

the middle ear communicates with the nasopharynx through the

auditory tube

the sense of equilibrium and hearing are provided by receptors in the

inner ear

the structure that supports the organ of corti is the

basilar membrane

gravity and linear acceleration are sensed in the

saccule and utricle

when an external force bends the stereocilia of the inner ear hair cells,

there is a change in the transmembrane potential of the hair cells

the region of the ampulla that contains the receptors for rotational (dynamic) equilibrium are called


the superficial hard part of the inner ear is called the ____ and contains ____

bony labyrinth; perilymph

movement of the endolymph in the semicircular canals

signals rotational movements

the energy from a pressure wave in the cochlear fluids is released by the bulging and stretching of the


the function of the auditory tube is to

equalize air pressure on both sides of the tympanic membrane

standing still in an elevator that suddenly lowers will stimulate receptors in the

utricle and saccule

an infection that damages the vestibular nerve could result in a loss of


the hair cells of the utricle and saccule are clustered in


the frequency of a perceived sound depends on

which part of the cochlear duct is stimulated

perception of gravity and linear acceleration depends on

the force exerted by otoliths on hair cells of the maculae

sound waves are converted into mechanical movements by the

tympanic membrane

which of the following descriptions best matches the term stereocilia

bending these produces receptor potential in hair cells

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