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Nutrition Final

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If an individual's intake of a nutrient is less than the RDA, the individual...
May or may not be deficient in that nutrient
Currently in the US which of the following is the greatest nutritionally related problem?
obesity
Which organelle is involved in converting the energy from the energy yielding nutrients into a form the cell can use?
mitochondria
Which of the following diseases or conditions is not related to poor nutrients and a sedentary lifestyle?
Sickle cell anemia
Which of the following nutrients provides the most calories per gram?
fats
Which characteristic of a healthy diet ensures that we obtain enough of the nutrients we need?
adequacy
When looking at the ingredient label of a bottled spaghetti sauce you see that olive oil is the second ingredient. This means that olive oil is
The second most abundant ingredient by weight
Which characteristic of a healthy diet ensures that we don't get too much of a specific nutrient?
moderation
Which term describes failing health that results from a long standing dietary intake that does not meet nutritional needs?
Undernutrition
The Food and Nutrition Board has set recommendations for a range of percent calories that should be met by the consumption of carbohydrates, proteins and fats. What is the range recommended for carbohydrates?
45-65%
The recommendations for someone eating a 2000 calorie a day diet is 6 oz. eq of grains. Which of the following DOES NOT constitute 1 oz. eq?
1 cup of cooked cereal
Which of the following are NOT a constituent of saliva?
intrinsic factor
Which of the following is NOT part of the digestive tract?
liver
The exchange of nutrients, oxygen, and waste products takes place within arteries and veins. True or False?
False
When you go to the doctor, typically, they will measure your height and weight. This is an example of what assessment?
Anthropometric
Which of the following phytochemical are rich in colored (orange, red, yellow) vegetables?
Caroteniods
Bone, Cartilage, muscle, and nerves are considered types of
tissues
In which of the following organs is bile made, which aids in digestion of fats?
liver
Which hormone causes the release of bicarbonate from the pancreas, which neutralizes the acid entering the small intestine from the stomach?
Secretin
Foods which high nutrient density offer the ____ nutrients for the ____ calories.
most, least
Which of the following functions are provided by nutrients?
Provide the body with energy
Help maintain and repair the body
Acts as building blocks of the body
What structure prevents food from entering the trachea when you swallow?
Epiglottis
Eating a piece of cake after a big dinner is an example of the psychological drive to eat. The term given to the psychological drive to eat it....
Appetite
Which of the following prevents gastric juices from entering the esophagus?
Esophageal Sphincter
Coordinated waves of muscular contraction, followed by muscles relaxation is called a _______. It is used to move food along the gastrointestinal tract.
peristaltic contraction
In which of the following organs are villi found; finger like projections that increase the surface area of the organ?
small intestine
Suppose a serving a fruit juice A has 100% of the RDA for vitamin C and 200 calories, while a serving of juice B has 5% of the RDA for vitamin C and 50 calories. Which fruit juice has the highest nutrient density for vitamin C?
Juice B
According to the Dietary Guidelines, the food groups to encourage are...
Fruits, Vegetables, low fat milk, whole grains
Which of the following upon digestion, is NOT normally taken up directly into the bloodstream?
Fats
Which of the following most accurately describes the term epidemiology?
A study of how disease rates vary among different population groups
Where are most of the digestive enzymes produced?
Pancreas and small intestine
The food label term "fat free" means that...
The food item contains less than 0.5 grams of fat per serving
Which of the following tend to increase the energy density of a food item?
Increasing the amount of fat in the food
The acronym RDA stands for
Recommended Dietary Allowance
Which of the following meals contain all the food groups (except oil)
Re fried beans, onions, tomatoes, and cheddar cheese wrapped in a tortilla, orange and soft drink.
To a nutritionist the term "essential" means something
The body cant make or make in sufficient quantities
Mrs. Mitchell was hospitalized after being found unconscious in her home. A dietician conduct a nutritional assessment nothing the general appearance of Mrs. Mitchell's skin, eye, and tongue. What part of the assessment is it?
Clinical
Suppose a serving of a food item is 90 calories. You lean from the food label that 50% of the calories were derived from fat. How many grams of fat are in a serving of the food item?
5
To which organ does blood travel to pick up oxygen and release carbon dioxide?
lungs
The food grouping guidelines most recently released from the US government are called
MyPyramid.....MyPlate?
During states of under nutrition, what typically develops first?
biochemical changes
What is the function of mucus in the stomach?
protects stomach cells from gastric juice
Blood leaving the small intestine goes by way of a vein to the
liver
Which of the following nutrients is NOT organic?
minerals
Which of the following is a description of chyme?
A watery mixture of partially digested food released by the stomach into the intestine
Malnutrition only results from long term deficiencies of nutrients like protein, vitamins, and minerals
False
Suppose a food item contains 5 grams of carbs, 10grams of protein, 10 grams of fats, and 2 milligrams of vitamins. How many calories are in the food item?
150 calories
Which of the following statements is NOT true concerning guidelines for a healthy diet?
You should not eat foods with a low nutrient density ("junk" foods)
Which organ system is involved in eliminating water soluble waste from the body?
urinary system
Which of the following are functions of the kidney?
Formation of urine
Production of red blood cells
formation of activity vitamin D
Structurally, amylase could be described as...
long, straight glucose chain
which source of stored body energy can be used to form glucose that can be used by the brain during times of fasting?
liver glycogen
The main dietary factor associated with high blood cholesterol is..
high saturated fat intake
Which of the following does not describe a function of fat?
best source of energy for the brain
What is the major monsaccharide found in the body?
glucose
The process that plants use to make glucose from carbon dioxide and water in the presence of sunlight is called
photosynthesis
BHA and BHT are examples of
antioxidants
Which of the following characteristics is true of the artificial fat, olestra
it passes through the small intestine unabsorbed
Which of the following artificial sweeteners is made up of two amino acids, aspartame and phenylalanine. As a result, people with PKU, who cannot metabolize phenylalanine, need to be aware of which products contain this sweetener?
aspartame
Intestinal cell package triglycerides into a lipoprotein called
chylomicron
All other things being equal, what effect does inc your blood HDL conc have on your risk of developing atherosclerosis?
It decreases the risk
Which type of diabetes is associated with obesity, and results from the body becoming resistant to the effects of insulin?
type 2
The large intestine is a major site of _____ absorption?
water
Viscous (soluble) fibers can....
a. lower blood cholesterol levels
b. slow the absorption of glucose
c. increase stool size significantly
As a product of lipid digestion, glycerol and short-chained fatty acids are absorbed...
by the capillaries of the small intestine
What enzyme is responsible for the digestion of starches in the small intestine?
pancreatic amylase
Which of the following hormones is released in response to high blood glucose concentration, like you would find after a meal, which helps lower glucose concentrates?
insulin
Which of the following families of fatty acids are essential?
omega-3 & omega 6 unsaturated fatty acids
The World Health Organization recommends limiting added sugar intake to ____ percent of our total calories.
10
Which of the following food groups contains on average 18 grams of carbs per serving, consisting of a mixture of simple and complex carbs?
fruits
Which of the following hormones is released to correct a hypoglycemic state?
glucagon
Which of the following contains a rich supply of omega- 3 fatty acids?
salmon
Glycogen is most similar in structure to which of the following?
amylopectin
For which of the following is glucose most critical as an energy source?
brain
Which of the following is not true of dietary fibers?
they are absorbed in the large intestine
The term "simple carb" refers to
a. disaccharides
b. polysaccharides
c. monosaccharides
major sources of dietary fructose include...
fruits and honey
Phosoholipids differ from triglycerides in which of the following ways?
A compound containing phosphorus replaces one fatty acid
Which organ will first receive sugars after they are absorbed into the blood?
liver
Dietary fiber may play a role in the prevention of which kind of cancer?
colon
Which of the following foods does not contain cholesterol?
peanuts
Most of the maltose in the small intestines comes from the...
digestion of starches
Diabetes increases the risk of developing which of the following conditions?
a. kidney disease
b. cardio disease
c. blindness in adulthood
The shorter the chain-length of the fatty acids in triglyceride, the more likely it is being ____ at room temp. The lower the degree of saturation of the fatty acids in triglyceride, the more likely it is of being ____ at room temp.
liquid, liquid
Which of the following is a major source of lactose?
skim milk
What is the fate of the majority of cholesterol in bile after it is released into the small intestine?
It is reabsorbed by the small intestine and taken to the liver
What is the reason to saturate a polyunsaturated fatty acid?
a. to make it healthier
b. to make the lipid more solid
c. increase the shelf-life of foods
When a person eats an excess of carbs, the liver can use that excess to make fats. These fats are packaged into a lipoprotein and it is released into the blood. What is the name of this lipoprotein made by the liver?
VLDL
Which of the following hormones causes the breakdown of glycogen back into glucose and the synthesis of glucose by the liver from noncarb precursors
glucagon
The glycemic load takes into account the glycemic index of the food and the amount of ....
carbs consumed
Which of the following is not a rich source of polyunsaturated fatty acids?
coconut oil
Which of the following is not a monosaccaride?
lactose
Which of the following is not a nonfermentable (insoluble) fiber?
gum
What is the fate of disaccharides not digested in the small intesinte?
they pass into the colon an dare fermented by bacteria
What is the name of the lipoprotein that carries cholesterol from the liver to the tissues of the body?
LDL
Which of the following has the most starch?
kidney beans
Besides providing the body with energy, a sufficient amount of carbs consumption is required to....
a. prevent ketosis
b. prevent insulin resistance
c. lessen the breakdown of body proteins