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Infection (4 Questions)
Terms in this set (49)
Infection occurs because _____ invade the body, multiply, produce disease, then cause hard to the host.
______ agents inhibit or escape defense mechanisms.
Inadequate or inappropriate activation of defenses is called _____ deficiency.
Limited to a small area
Areas of the body beyond the initial site of infection
Infection spread extensively throughout the body; often via blood
The hallmark of infection is ____.
Other clinical manifestations of infection include:
increased WBC's, HR>90 beats/min, RR> 20 bpm
Decreased energy level
Loss of concentration
Loss of appetite
What has altered the prevalence of infectious disease?
-mutant strains of bacteria and viruses
Ability to spread from one individual to others and cause disease—for example, measles and pertussis spread very easily; human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is of lower communicability
Ability of pathogens to induce an immune response
Ability of the pathogen to invade and multiply in the host
Mechanism of action
Manner in which the microorganism damages tissue
Ability of an agent to produce disease—success depends on communicability, infectivity, extent of tissue damage, and virulence
Portal of entry
Route by which a pathogenic microorganism infects the host: direct contact, inhalation, ingestion, or bites of an animal or insect
Ability to produce soluble toxins or endotoxins, factors that greatly influence the pathogen's degree of virulence
Capacity of a pathogen to cause severe disease—for example, measles virus is of low virulence; rabies virus is highly virulent
The most common causes of infections are ___, ___, ___, and ____.
bacteria, virus, fungi, and protozoa
Bacteria cause disease in two ways:
1. Enter the body and grow inside human cells:
2. Secrete toxins that damage cells:
Bacteria lack discrete ____.
Bacteria can be both ___ or ___.
aerobic or anaerobic
Bacteria can by motile or ____.
Bacteria can be ____, ____, or ____.
spherical, bacilli, or spirochetes
Bacteria can be gram __ or __.
- or +
presence of bacteria in the blood
growth of bacteria in the blood
What causes septicemia?
Failure of the body's defense mechanisms.
What does bacterial survival & growth depend on?
1. Effectiveness of the body's defensive mechanisms
2. Bacterium's ability to resist the body's defenses
-Thick capsule of carbohydrate or protein on encapsulated bacteria
-Production of exotoxin and endotoxin that injure cells
________ (lipopolysaccharides) are contained in the cell walls of gram-negative bacteria.
_____ are released during lysis or destruction of bacteria, during cell growth, and during treatment with antibiotics.
______ can not prevent the toxic effects of the endotoxin.
What is the body's response to the presence of bacteria?
2. Vascular permeability is increased
3. Leakage of plasma proteins
4. Leukocyte (neutrophil) recruitment & migration
-Substances involved in bacterial destruction accesses the site of infection
Endotoxins increase ____ and capillary permeability.
When large volumes of plasma escapse _____ occurs.
1. hypotension --> decreasd oxygen delivery
2. Cardiovascular shock
Endotoxin can activate the ____ cascade.
When an endotoxin causes hypotension, cardiovascular shock, or the coagulation cascade then _____ ____ _____ can occur.
disseminated intra-vascular coagulation (blood clotting)
systemic inflammatory response to infection
presence of sepsis with hypotension
How is sepsis diagnosed?
Process to sepsis development:
1. Bacteria enters blood stream to produce bacteremia
2. Bacteria stimulate an inflammatory response
3. Gram-negative bacteria release endotoxin
4. The substances trigger septic syndrome and the release of inflammatory mediators
5. Systemic inflammation
Septic shock clinical manifestations include _____, decreased delivery, and ______ shock.
Antibiotic resistant pathogens
Microorganisms mutate and developed resistance
destruction of normal flora; selective overgrowth of pathogens
Why have multiple antibiotic-resistant microorganisms appeared?
-Lack of compliance completing the therapeutic regimen (all doses of antibiotic)
-Overuse of antibiotics
(1) administering antibiotics for viral infections
(2) succumbing to pressures from patients to prescribe unnecessary antibiotic therapy
(3) using inadequate drug regimens to treat infections
(4) using broad-spectrum or combination agents for infections that should be treated with first-line medications.
Do not take antibiotics to ____ illness.
Wash your ____ frequently.
Do not request antibiotics for ___ or ____.
flu or colds
Always ______ antibiotics!
Do not take left over _____.
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