History and Approaches FRQs
Terms in this set (8)
The definition of psychology changed as the field evolved during the early years. Why did John B Watson object to the definition preferred by Wundt, Titchner, and James? (1) What group of psychologist did Watson's idea influence? (2) How did Watson redefine psychology? (3)
1 Point: Watson objected to the "science of mental life" because he felt it was impossible to be scientific with out observation,
1 Point: Watson's ideas influenced the behaviorists
1 Point: Watson preferred limiting psychology to behavior, because behavior could be observed and scientifically analyzed.
Identify the founder of structuralism and explain structuralism four foundational concepts?
1 point: Edward Titchener
1 point: Attempted to discover the structural elements of the mind
1 point: by using a process called introspection
1 point: Individuals reported elements of their experiences when presented with specific objects.
1 point:It was an attempt to gain an insider's perspective into minds of others
1 point:He wanted to predict individual responses to those objects or experiences to which participants had earlier replied.
George is said to have an "easy-going" personality. How might the biopsychosocial approach be used to explain an easy-going personality?
1 Point: biological factors would include George's genetic, psychological, and chemical makeup. For instance, George's easy going manner may be the result of brain chemistry.
1 point: Psychological factors would include a discussion of how George learned that an easy going personality makes people want to spend time with him. In response, he keeps negative and anxiety feelings to himself. He has the perception that other do not want to deal with his stress and anxiety.
1Point: Social-cultural factors would include George's family or cultural upbringing and expectations. If those who surround George expect him to be relaxed and laid-back, and this is what is supported in his community, george will be likely to act accordingly.
Six months ago, Carlos emigrated from Spain to the United States. Although fluent in English and an honor student in Spain, Carlos has had difficulty completing his assignments since moving to the U.S. His parents don't understand why he is not succeeding like he did in his last school. Carlos has quit participating in family traditions. Explain how each of the following psychological perspectives might explain Carlos's behavior.
1 point: Psychodynamic Carlos may be acting out because he is homesick. Carlos' behavior can be explained by his relocation to a new country.
1 point: Cognitive Carlos may not understand his assignments or environment as well as he did in Spain. This factor could be the cause of his change in behavior.
Anisha, a high school student, has been struggling in many areas in her life. She is overweight and spends a lot of time watching tv. She is having trouble keeping up in her classes and says she cannot seem to keep her focus. She has trouble making friends and "fitting in" at school. Explain how a health psychologist, social psychologist, and counseling psychologist can help her cope.
1) - health psychologist : attempt to find ways to encourage her to lead a more active lifestyle and focus on improving her lifestyle and focus on creating a diet and exercise program. This should help her lose some weight and become healthier in her daily habits
2) school; might work with her parents, teachers, and counselors to determine why she is struggling in her classes and make recommendations for improving her classroom performance.
3) counseling: might work with her to find out why she has recently found numerous aspects of her life ore challenging and might work on strategies for helping Anisha cope with challenging situations, such as how to make friends.
hurricane Katrina hit new Orleans in 2005, causing a staggering loss of life and cultural heritage and billions of dollars in damage. How might each of the following have contributed to making life better in New Orleans following the hurricane?
1) A clinical psychologist could contributed by evaluating communities and offering help to the people psychologically affected by the disaster
2) A social psychologist could help by encouraging positive interaction between the communities. A social psychologist could contribute helping people work together to work through the damage to New Orleans and many families.
Arianna is nervous around large crowds, and often leaves social situations like school dance and parties because she feels like she might have a panic attack. Her father died when she was ayoung girl,but she still often has nightmares about his death. Arianna enjoys school,and because she generally receives good grades,she appreciates the positive feedback from her teachers, that encourages her to improve her academic skills.
using the seven major modern approaches to psychology explain how each approach might explain Arianna's behavior.
1) The biological approach would likely attribute Arrianna's nervousness to brain chemistry, hormones or genetic influence.
2) The evolutionary approach would explore how avoiding social crowds might have been a survival advantage for early humans such as by reducing exposure to germs and violence
3) The psychodynamic approach would examine Arianna's early life and how she dealt with losing her father, focusing on Arianna's childhood experience and unconscious anxieties.
4) The behavioral approach would look at how Arianna has learned in the past through rewards and punishments. She may have had a negative experience in a large group in the past and as a result has learned to avoid social gatherings.
5) The cognitive approach would focus on examining how Arianna perceives situations. her interpretation of social situations may impact outcome.
6)The humanistic approach would look at how Arianna's environment may have hindered her growth and self-fulfillment
7) The social-cultural approach would examine how interactions within the cultures Arianna belongs to influences her expectations about social stations.If her family or other cultural influences encourage her to attend social functions, that might influence her to continue to try attending those kinds of evens.
In thinking of the question of nature versus nurture, explain how each of the following schools of psychology would address this debate
1) Behaviorism Behaviorism would promote the idea of nurture because it suggests that we learn through observable behaviors
2) Biological Perspective The biological perspective would promote the idea of nature and nurture because it suggest that genes and environment play a role in assessing an individual's behavior.
3) Personality Psychologists A personality psychologist would promote the idea of nature because it focuses on investigating persistent traits.
4) Developmental Psychologists Developmental psychologist would promote nurture because it focuses on the psychical, cognitive, and social change throughout a person's life span