Terms in this set (229)
a voyage that brought enslaved Africans across the Atlantic Ocean to North America and the West Indies
the transfer of plants, animals, and diseases between the Americas and Europe, Asia, and Africa
This document was signed by King John in 1215. It was the first document that limited the power of the government.
supporter of the Constitution
individuals who opposed ratification of the Constitution
supporter of the Constitution
checks and balance
Each branch has the power to make sure no one branch overpowers the other
alien and sedition act
passed by federalists making it harder to become citizens and to deport any immigrant deemed dangerous. the second one outlawed the writing, speaking, or publications of false, scandalous, or malicious statements against the government
an American foreign policy opposing interference in the Western hemisphere from outside powers
The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
a system of secret routes used by escaping slaves to reach freedom in the North or in Canada
A pseson who worked to end slavery.
american abolitionist and writer, he escaped slavery and became the leading african american spokesperson and writer
a group's refusal to obey a law because they believe the law is immoral (as in protest against discrimination)
lucretia mott and elizabeth cady stanton
organized a convention for women's rights held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848
a legal right guaranteed by the 15th amendment to the US constitution
susan b. anthony
social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Association
a belief that americans 1800s that u.s.a should expand across the contentent
compromise of 1850
Includes California admitted as a free state, the Fugitive Slave Act, Made popular sovereignty in most other states from Mexican- American War
people hold the final authority in all matters of government
Union war plan by Winfield Scott, called for blockade of southern coast, capture of Richmond, capture Mississippi R, and to take an army through heart of south
Issued by abraham lincoln on september 22, 1862 it declared that all slaves in the confederate states would be free
the civil right to obtain a writ of habeas corpus as protection against illegal imprisonment
the period after the Civil War in the United States when the southern states were reorganized and reintegrated into the Union
This amendment freed all slaves without compensation to the slaveowners. It legally forbade slavery in the United States.
Declares that all persons born in the U.S. are citizens and are guaranteed equal protection of the laws
citizens cannot be denied the right to vote because of race, color , or precious condition of servitude
the doctrine that government should not interfere in commercial affairs
Inventor of lightbulb, phonograph and numerous other innovations
A way to manufacture steel quickly and cheaply by blasting hot air through melted iron to quickly remove impurities.
alexander graham bell
United States inventor (born in Scotland) of the telephone (1847-1922)
In the 1800s he enlarged fresh meat markets through branch slaughterhouses and refrigeration. He monopolized the meat industry.
why were times zones created
United States industrialist and philanthropist who endowed education and public libraries and research trusts (1835-1919)
United States financier who accumulated great wealth from railroad and shipping businesses (1794-1877)
john d. rockefeller
Was an American industrialist and philanthropist. Revolutionized the petroleum industry and defined the structure of modern philanthropy.
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in the same level of production and sharing resources at that level
absorption into a single firm of several firms involved in all aspects of a product's manufacture from raw materials to distribution
(economics) a market in which there are many buyers but only one seller
a consortium of independent organizations formed to limit competition by controlling the production and distribution of a product or service
arrangement grouping several companies under one board of directors to eliminate competition and to regulate production
The application of ideas about evolution and "survival of the fittest" to human societies - particularly as a justification for their imperialist expansion.
interstate commerce commission
a former independent federal agency that supervised and set rates for carriers that transported goods and people between states
Sherman anti-trust act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions
gospel of wealth
This was a book written by Carnegie that described the responsibility of the rich to be philanthropists. This softened the harshness of Social Darwinism as well as promoted the idea of philanthropy.
knights of labor
1st effort to create National union. Open to everyone but lawyers and bankers. Vague program, no clear goals, weak leadership and organization. Failed
the cheapest accommodations on a passenger ship
an island in New York Bay that was formerly the principal immigration station for the United States
Inspection station for immigrants arriving on the West Coast
assimilation into American culture
an environment in which many ideas and races are socially assimilated
the policy of perpetuating native cultures (in opposition to acculturation)
poorly built, overcrowded housing where many immigrants lived
frederick law olmstead
landscape architect who drew the plan for Greensward, more recently known as Central Park
william randolph hearst
United States newspaper publisher whose introduction of large headlines and sensational reporting changed American journalism (1863-1951)
Completed in 1869 at Promontory, Utah, it linked the eastern railroad system with California's railroad system, revolutionizing transportation in the west
A vast area of grassland owned by the government where ranchers could graze their herds for free
Passed in 1862, it gave 160 acres of public land to any settler who would farm the land for five years. The settler would only have to pay a registration fee of $25.
a tax of a fixed amount per person and payable as a requirement for the right to vote
A test given to persons to prove they can read and write before being allowed to register to vote
A clause in registration laws allowing people who do not meet registration requirements to vote if they or their ancestors had voted before 1867.
jim crow laws
Limited rights of blacks. Literacy tests, grandfather clauses and poll taxes limited black voting rights
booker t. washington
African American progressive who supported segregation and demanded that African American better themselves individually to achieve equality.
(grows up in the north) first African American to get a PhD from Harvard; wants equality NOW
the system of employing and promoting civil servants who are friends and supporters of the group in power
pendleton civil service act
1883 law that created a Civil Service Commission and stated that federal employees could not be required to contribute to campaign funds nor be fired for political reasons
a paragon of excellence
a former political party in the United States
the political orientation of those who favor progress toward better conditions in government and society
This term applies to newspaper reporters and other writers who pointed out the social problems of the era of big business. The term was first given to them by Theodore Roosevelt.
Early 1900's muckraker who exposed social and political evils in the U.S. with his novel "How The Other Half Lives"; exposed the poor conditions of the poor tenements in NYC and Hell's Kitchen
United States writer whose novels argued for social reform (1878-1968)
Movement led by Washington Gladden - taught religion and human dignity would help the middle class over come problems of industrialization
a center in an underprivileged area that provides community services
the founder of Hull House, which provided English lessons for immigrants, daycares, and child care classes
a primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office
the right of citizens to place a measure or issue before the voters oe the legislative for approval, a process that allows citizens to propose legislation and submit it to the state electorate for popular vote
a legislative act is referred for final approval to a popular vote by the electorate
the act of removing an official by petition
gave women the right to vote
meat inspection at
pure food and drug act
the act that prohibited the manufacture, sale, or shipment of impure of falsely labeled food and drugs
federal trade commission
an independent agency of the United States fedeal government that maintains fair and free competition
any instance of aggressive extension of authority
the Hawaiian queen who was forced out of power by a revolution started by American business interests
led the fight for Cuba's independence from Spain from 1895 through the Spanish-American War
volunteer soldiers led by Theodore Roosevelt during the Spanish American War
sphere of influence
the geographical area in which one nation is very influential
open door policy
A policy proposed by the US in 1899, under which ALL nations would have equal opportunities to trade in China.
Roosevelt's 1904 extension of the Monroe Doctrine, stating that the United States has the right to protect its economic interests in South And Central America by using military force
diplomacy influenced by economic considerations
what started ww1
imperialism, nationalism, militarism,and the assassination of archduke franz ferdinand which triggered alliances
Written by Arthur Zimmerman, a german foreign secretary. In this note he had secretly proposed a German- Mexican alliance. He tempted Mexico with the ideas of recovering Texas, Arizona, and New Mexico. The note was intercepted on March 1, 1917 by the U.S. government. This was a major factor that led us into WWI.
sinking of the lusitania
When German submarines sunk an unarmed British ship killing 139 Americans
This law, passed after the United States entered WWI, imposed sentences of up to twenty years on anyone found guilty of aiding the enemy, obstructing recruitment of soldiers, or encouraging disloyalty. It allowed the postmaster general to remove from the mail any materials that incited treason or insurrection.
great migration during ww1
when the blacks from the south moved north to find jobs
the protection of merchant ships from U-boat-German submarine-attacks by having the ships travel in large groups escorted by warships
Woodrow Wilson's peace plan, set out before war ended, helped bring it to and end because it helped Germans look forward to peace and be willing to surrender, was easy on the germans punishment for war. Points included: poeple all over the world are to determine their own fate, (self-determination)no colonial powers grabbing nations, free trade, no secret pacts, freedom of the seas, arms reduction, creation of world orginization/League of Nations.
Most instense outbreak of national alarm, began in 1919. Success of communists in Russia, American radicals embracing communism followed by a series of mail bombings frightened Americans. Attorney General A. MItchell Palmer led effort to deport aliens without due processs, with widespread support. Did not last long as some Americans came to their senses. Sacco/Vanzetti trial demonstrated anti-foreign feeling in 20's. Accused of armed robbery & murder, had alibis. "Those anarchists bastards". Sentenced to death and executed.
sacco and vanzetti
were two italian born american laborers and anarchists who were tired convicted and executed via electrocution on Aug 3 1927 in Ma for the 1920 armed robbery. it is believed they had nothing to do with the crime
United States manufacturer of automobiles who pioneered mass production (1863-1947)
a market characterized by rising prices for securities
a market characterized by falling prices for securities
a system for paying for goods by installments
the interpretation of every word in the sacred texts as literal truth
a highly publicized trial in 1925 when John Thomas Scopes violated a Tennessee state law by teaching evolution in high school
Smugglers of illegal alcohol during the Prohibition era
lost generation (f. scott fitzgerald, ernest hemingway)
A time of booming business, lots of new entertainment like Jazz Age music, and new technologies.
United States jazz trumpeter and bandleader (1900-1971)
United States blues singer (1894-1937)
31st President of the United States
October 29, 1929; the day the stock market crashed. Lead to the Panic of 1929
charged a high tax for imports thereby leading to less trade between America and foreign countries along with some economic retaliation
32nd President of the United States, Roosevelt, the President of the United States during the Depression and WWII. He instituted the New Deal. Served from 1933 to 1945, he was the only president in U.S. history to be elected to four terms
the historic period (1933-1940) in the U.S. during which President Franklin Roosevelt's economic policies were implemented
(Tennessee Valley Authority Act) Relief, Recover, and Reform. one of the most important acts that built a hyro-electric dam for a needed area.
a federally sponsored corporation that insures accounts in national banks and other qualified institutions
the special session of Congress that Roosevelt called to launch his New Deal programs. The special session lasted about three months: 100 days.
social welfare program in the U.S.
john maynard keynes
English economist who advocated the use of government monetary and fiscal policy to maintain full employment without inflation (1883-1946)
world leaders at beginning of ww1
the act of appeasing (as by acceding to the demonds of)
"Lighting war", typed of fast-moving warfare used by German forces against Poland n 1939
policy adopted by the United States in 1939 to preserve neutrality while aiding the Allies. Britain and France could buy goods from the United States if they paid in full and transported them.
allowed sales or loans of war materials to any country whose defense the president deems vital to the defense of the U.S
1941-Pledge signed by US president FDR and British prime minister Winston Churchill not to acquire new territory as a result of WWII amd to work for peace after the war
Germany, Italy, and Japan
German Nazi dictator during World War II (1889-1945)
Fascist dictator of Italy (1922-1943). He led Italy to conquer Ethiopia (1935), joined Germany in the Axis pact (1936), and allied Italy with Germany in World War II. He was overthrown in 1943 when the Allies invaded Italy. (p. 786)
Russian leader who succeeded Lenin as head of the Communist Party and created a totalitarian state by purging all opposition (1879-1953)
A noted British statesman who led Britain throughout most of World War II and along with Roosevelt planned many allied campaigns. He predicted an iron curtain that would separate Communist Europe from the rest of the West.
in World War I the alliance of Great Britain and France and Russia and all the other nations that became allied with them in opposing the Central Powers
United States military base on Hawaii that was bombed by Japan, bringing the United States into World War II. Pearl Harbor was attacked on December 7, 1941.
Planned June 5th June 6 1944 Germans occupied Normandy France Germans though it would occur at Calais and goal was to liberate Paris
rosie the riveter
symbol of American women who went to work in factories during the war
code name for the secret United States project set up in 1942 to develop atomic bombs for use in World War II
j. robert oppenheimer
lead the Manhattan Project: the World War II effort to develop the first nuclear bomb. He was remembered as the "Father of the Atomic Bomb."
A methodical plan orchestrated by Hitler to ensure German supremacy. It called for the elimination of Jews, non-conformists, homosexuals, non-Aryans, and mentally and physically disabled.
systematic killing of a racial or cultural group
the Nazi program of exterminating Jews under Hitler
an impenetrable barrier to communication or information especially as imposed by rigid censorship and secrecy
a state of political conflict using means short of armed warfare
President Truman's policy of providing economic and military aid to any country threatened by communism or totalitarian ideology
airlift in 1948 that supplied food and fuel to citizens of west Berlin when the Russians closed off land access to Berlin
(military) the act of containing something or someone
law passed in 1944 to help returning veterans buy homes and pay for higher educations
the larger than expected generation in United States born shortly after World War II
house un-america activities commitee
unscrupulously accusing people of disloyalty (as by saying they were Communists)
a period of general fear of communists
line of latitude that separated North and South Korea
a port on the western coast of South Korea, on the Yellow Sea, near Seoul; pop. 1,818,000. It was the site of a successful invasion by U.S. troops in 1950 that enabled them to return Seoul to South Korea.
The site where the armistice was signed during the Korean War. It ended hostilities of the Korean conflict.
the policy of pushing a dangerous situation to the brink of disaster (to the limits of safety)
a policy of threatening a massive response including the use of nuclear weapons against a communist state trying to seize a peaceful state by force
Inter-Continental Ballistic Missiles, long-range nuclear missiles capable of being fired at targets on the other side of the globe. The reason behind the Cuban Missile Crisis -- Russia was threatening the U.S. by building launch sites for ICBM's in Cuba.
a Russian artificial satellite
United States virologist who developed the Salk vaccine that is injected against poliomyelitis (born 1914)
states in the south and southwest that have a warm climate and tend to be politically conservative
bay of pigs
In April 1961, a group of Cuban exiles organized and supported by the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency landed on the southern coast of Cuba in an effort to overthrow Fidel Castro. When the invasion ended in disaster, President Kennedy took full responsibility for the failure.
cuban missile crisis
the 1962 confrontation bewteen US and the Soviet Union over Soviet missiles in Cuba
the buildup of conventional troops and weapons to allow a nation to fight a limited war without using nuclear weapons
The campaign program advocated by JFK in the 1960 election. He promised to revitalize the stagnant economy and enact reform legislation in education, health care, and civil rights.
the chief justice that overturned Plessy v. Ferguson in Brown v. Board of Education (1954); he was the first justice to help the civil rights movement, judicial activism
President Johnson called his version of the Democratic reform program the Great Society. In 1965, Congress passed many Great Society measures, including Medicare, civil rights legislation, and federal aid to education.
health care for the needy
health care for the aged
civil rights movement
movement in the United States beginning in the 1960s and led primarily by Blacks in an effort to establish the civil rights of individual Black citizens
a bar of magnetic material (as soft iron) that passes through a coil and serves to increase the inductance of the coil
United States baseball player
American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.
little rock 9
incident in which troops (sent by president Eisenhower) helped integrate a high school by allowing nine black students to enter school peacefully and not be prevented by angry mobs.
United States civil rights leader who refused to give up her seat on a bus to a white man in Montgomery (Alabama) and so triggered the national civil rights movement (born in 1913)
montgomery bus boycott
In 1955, after Rosa Parks was arrested for refusing to give up her seat on a city bus, Dr. Martin L. King led a boycott of city busses. After 11 months the Supreme Court ruled that segregation of public transportation was illegal.
Southern Christian Leadership Conference, churches link together to inform blacks about changes in the Civil Rights Movement, led by MLK Jr., was a success
brown v. board of education
court found that segregation was a violation of the Equal Protection clause "separate but equal" has no place
Group of civil rights workers who took bus trips through southern states in 1961 to protest illegal bus segregation
civil rights at of 1964
Federal legislation that prohibits discrimination in hiring, firing, compensation, apprenticeships, training, terms, conditions, or privileges of employment based on race, color, religion, sex, or national origin.
voting rights act 1965
1965; invalidated the use of any test or device to deny the vote and authorized federal examiners to register voters in states that had disenfranchised blacks; as more blacks became politically active and elected black representatives, it rboguth jobs, contracts, and facilities and services for the black community, encouraging greater social equality and decreasing the wealth and education gap
Amendment to the U.S. Constitution (1964) eliminated the poll tax as a prerequisite to vote in national elections.
de jure segregation
segregation that is imposed by law
de facto segregation
segregation (especially in schools) that happens in fact although not required by law
created in July, 1967 by President Lyndon B. Johnson to investigate the causes of the 1967 race riots in the United States
black panther party
A group formed in 1966, inspired by the idea of Black Power, that provided aid to black neighborhoods; often thought of as radical or violent.
the belief that blacks should fight back if attacked. it urged blacks to achieve economic independence by starting and supporting their own business.
1952; renamed himself X to signify the loss of his African heritage; converted to Nation of Islam in jail in the 50s, became Black Muslims' most dynamic street orator and recruiter; his beliefs were the basis of a lot of the Black Power movement built on seperationist and nationalist impulsesto achieve true independence and equality
a policy designed to redress past discrimination against women and minority groups through measures to improve their economic and educational opportunities
ho chi minch
Communist leader in North Vietnam during the vietnam War. HIs gov. aided the Vietcong
an organization of Vietnamese Communists and other nationalist groups that between 1946 and 1954 fought for Vietnamese independence from the French
the guerrilla soldiers of the Communist faction in Vietnam, also know as the National Liberation Front
the political theory that if one nation comes under Communist control then neighboring nations will also come under Communist control
tonkin gulf resolution
This gave the president authority to take "all neccessary measures to repel any armed attack against forces of the United States."
operation rolling thunder
was the title of a gradual and sustained U.S. 2nd Air Division (later Seventh Air Force), U.S. Navy, and Republic of Vietnam Air Force (VNAF) aerial bombardment campaign conducted against the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (North Vietnam) from 2 March 1965 until 1 November 1968, during the Vietnam War.
Those who opposed the war
Americans who were for the vietnam war
1968; National Liberation Front and North Vietnamese forces launched a huge attack on the Vietnamese New Year (Tet), which was defeated after a month of fighting and many thousands of casualties; major defeat for communism, but Americans reacted sharply, with declining approval of LBJ and more anti-war sentiment
President Richard Nixons strategy for ending U.S involvement in the vietnam war, involving a gradual withdrawl of American troops and replacement of them with South Vietnamese forces
that group of quiet honest hard-working middle class Americans who do their job, respect their country and support gov.; Nixon wants their votes in 1968 and 1972
my lai massacre
1968, in which American troops had brutally massacred innocent women and children in the village of My Lai, also led to more opposition to the war.
roe vs. wade
the U.S. supreme Court ruled that there is a fundamental right ro privacy, which includes a woman's decision to have an abortion. Up until the third trimester the state allows abortion.
a culture with lifestyles and values opposed to those of the established culture
the act of forming something
politics based on practical rather than moral or ideological considerations
relaxation of tensions between the United States and its two major Communist rivals, the Soviet Union and China
Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty, a plan to limit nuclear arms and also increased trade and exchange of scientific information.
superpowers pledged to limit nuclear arms production, although signed it was never officially ratified by the Ameican Senate.
an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum
a political scandal involving abuse of power and bribery and obstruction of justice
The power to keep executive communications confidential, especially if they relate to national security.
Vice President under Eisenhower and 37th President of the United States
38th President of the United States
camp david accords
A peace treaty between Israel and Egypt where Egypt agreed to recognize the nation state of Israel
United States astronaut
a policy of the Soviet government allowing freer discussion of social problems
an economic policy adopted in the former Soviet Union
co-founder of Apple
United States computer entrepreneur whose software company made him the youngest multi-billionaire in the history of the United States (born in 1955)
North American Free Trade Agreement; allows open trade with US, Mexico, and Canada
radio station for the grand ole opry
memphis sun studios
albert gore sr.
Beginning in 1939, he served in the United States government for more than 30 years. He served both in the House of Representatives and the Senate.