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Psychology: The Brain
Terms in this set (81)
The body's electrochemical communication circuitry is known as the _____ system.
Roy, the conductor of an orchestra, guides and coordinates other musicians during stage performances. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system predominantly commands Roy's behavior while conducting the orchestra?
NOT ** Plasticity
Lolita, a nine-year-old girl, met with an accident that led to a head injury. However, a few months later, she was able to recover from this injury. Which of the following characteristics of the nervous system most likely played a predominant role in her recovery?
Which of the following is NOT a characteristic of the human nervous system?
In the context of nervous system pathways, nerves that carry information about the external environment to the brain and spinal cord are known as _____ nerves.
In the context of divisions of the nervous system, the central nervous system consists of the _____.
brain and spinal cord
In the context of divisions of the nervous system, the autonomic nervous system consists of the _____.
parasympathetic nervous system and sympathetic nervous system
Nancy is in her building elevator going down to the lobby when the elevator stops suddenly between floors, and the doors won't open. Nancy's heart starts pounding, and her palms start sweating. In this scenario, Nancy's physiological responses can be best attributed to her _____ nervous system.
Which division of the peripheral nervous system is responsible for carrying messages to and from the body's internal organs and monitoring processes such as breathing, heart rate, and digestion?
Autonomic nervous system
In the context of the divisions of the nervous system, such processes as heart rate, breathing, and digestion are monitored by the _____.
autonomic nervous system
Julie hears some news about a bus accident on television. She believes her son was on the same bus and is overcome by anxiety which is primarily caused by her _____ nervous system. When her son phones and informs her that he was not on the bus, Julie is relieved and begins to relax. This response is primarily caused by her _____ nervous system.
Elizabeth feels her heart racing while she waits for her turn at a job interview. These physiological symptoms are most likely produced by her _____ nervous system.
_____ are activated in human and nonhuman primates both when they perform an action and when they watch someone else perform that same activity.
Which of the following characteristics makes mirror neurons so fascinating?
NOT **Mirror neurons do not respond to sensory information or motor information.
In the context of neurons, glial cells in the nervous system:
provide support and nutritional benefits to neurons.
In the context of the nervous system, which of the following is NOT true of glial cells?
They are responsible for the majority of information processing in the brain.
The cell body of a neuron contains the _____, which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance.
In the context of specialized cell structure, the _____ is the part of the neuron that carries information away from the cell body toward other cells.
A neurobiologist explains to his students that the human nervous system is analogous to electrical circuits in homes. If the circuit wires are not insulated, they are likely to cause a short circuit. In this scenario, the insulation on the wires can be likened to the _____ in the neural system.
In the context of specialized cell structure, which of the following components of a nerve cell hardens in patients with multiple sclerosis?
In the context of the neural impulse, the outer membrane of a neuron is semipermeable, which indicates that _____.
fluids and ions can sometimes flow into and out of it
In the context of the neural impulse, which of the following is true about the depolarization of neuron membranes?
It decreases the charge difference between the fluids inside and outside of the neuron.
In the context of the neural impulse, the action potential in a neuron abides by the _____ principle.
Jen and Jack are seated in the same row in an airplane but across the aisle from each other. If the information they exchange across the aisle represents the neural impulse between neurons, and Jen and Jack represent the neurons, the aisle most likely represents the _____.
In the context of the neuron structure, the tiny space between two neurons is called the _____.
Chemical substances that are stored in very tiny sacs within the terminal buttons and are involved in transmitting information across a synaptic gap to the next neuron are known as _____.
In the nervous system, which of the following is true of neurons and the neurotransmitters they secrete?
At any given time, a neuron is receiving a mixture of messages from the neurotransmitters.
In the context of neurotransmitters, individuals with Alzheimer's disease, a degenerative brain disorder that gradually destroys memory, most likely have a(n) _____.
Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter acetylcholine?
It is involved in muscle action, learning, and memory.
Melinda suffers from migraine headaches and seizures. In the context of neurotransmitter functioning, which of the following most likely plays a significant role in her symptoms?
✓ Too much glutamate
Dorothy has been suffering from epileptic seizures for the past four years. In the context of neurotransmitter functioning, her seizures can be best attributed to the _____.
overstimulation caused by glutamate
Depression is associated with low levels of the neurotransmitter _____.
Parkinson disease is specifically associated with low levels of the neurotransmitter _____.
Which of the following is true of the neurotransmitter serotonin?
It is involved in the regulation of mood and attention.
Which of the following best describes the function of endorphins?
They shield the body from pain and elevate feelings of pleasure.
Which of the following neurotransmitters is released in excess during the onset of lactation and breastfeeding in mothers who have just given birth?
Based on the provocative research that has linked oxytocin to stress, if Julia finds herself in a stressful situation she is most likely to:
seek support from a friend.
Sasha, a researcher, is working on a project on the human brain. Part of her research requires her to place electrodes on the scalps of her subjects to study their brain-wave activity. In this scenario, Sasha is most likely using _____.
an electroencephalograph (EEG)
Which of the following is true of the brain imaging technique known as transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS)?
It does examine neuronal functioning following brain-injuring events.
In the context of the organization of the brain, the _____ is the part of the hindbrain that is involved in sleep and arousal.
Donny suffered a stroke a few years ago. For many months, he was unable to coordinate his movements making it impossible for him to even stand up. Since then, he has been walking in a jerky, uncoordinated manner. In this scenario, Donny's symptoms after the stroke are most likely due to damage to his _____.
Emma just received word that her grandfather's stroke damaged a region in his brain called the substantia nigra. As a consequence of this damage, Emma's grandfather will most likely:
When Sam walks into his class, he does not have to think consciously about how to walk. When he gets there, he pays attention to the lecture even though it is boring and he is tired. In this scenario, the brain structure that is most likely causing these stereotyped patterns of behavior in Sam is the _____.
Ginny was in a car accident in which her amygdala was severely damaged. Which of the following is a likely consequence of this damage?
Ginny will try to eat the plate on which her sandwich is placed.
Old-fashioned telephone systems relied on operators to take incoming calls and connect them to the appropriate persons they were intended for. Which structure of the brain functions in an analogous manner?
In the context of the organization of the brain, one of its pleasure centers is found in the _____.
In the context of the cerebral cortex, the area critical for processing visual information is the _____ lobe.
James's brain injury has resulted in him not being able to process information about the things he sees around him or to react to them appropriately. In the context of the cerebral cortex, which of James's brain regions is most likely to be damaged?
Which of the following regions of the cerebral cortex is involved in higher cognitive functions such as planning, reasoning, and self-control?
Gregory is an excellent basketball player. He is always able to gauge the distance between himself and the basket correctly, and he never misses a shot. Which of the following regions of the cerebral cortex should function most efficiently to help him use this spatial location skill?
While Professor Travis is on the phone, he notices a glass vase sliding off the top shelf of his bookcase and about to fall on his dog. He moves quickly to catch the vase and prevent it from falling on his dog. In the context of the cerebral cortex, the quick movement of his hand is most likely a result of a process in the:
Which of the following scenarios correctly illustrates the effect of damage to Broca's area in the brain?
NOT**Franchesca is unable to comprehend words spoken by others.
What is the name of the large bundle of axons that connects the two halves of the brain?
✓ Corpus callosum
In the context of the cerebral hemispheres of the brain, the corpus callosum is:
a bundle of axons that connects the right hemisphere with the left hemisphere.
Which of the following is a function of the right hemisphere of the brain?
In the context of the endocrine system, the _____ gland regulates all the other glands.
In the context of the human brain's plasticity, research has found which of the following brain regions to be responsible for neurogenesis?
the context of genes and the environment, an individual's phenotype refers to his or her _____.
Which of the following scenarios accurately illustrates acute stress?
Edward has to rush to the hospital to perform heart surgery.
Which of the following is true of chronic stress in human beings?
It may lead to persistent autonomic nervous system arousal.
In the context of the nervous system, by far, the majority of information processing in the brain is done by _____.
Which of the following is a function of the axon in a nerve cell in the context of specialized cell structure?
It carries information away from the cell body toward other cells.
In the context of specialized cell structure, the myelin sheath is a layer of cells containing _____.
In the context of the neural impulse, the cell membrane of a neuron permits some substances to pass through it but not others. This is because the membrane is _____.
In the context of the neural impulse, which of the following is the status of the charges on each side of the cell membrane during the stage of resting potential?
A negative charge on the inside of the cell membrane and a positive charge on the outside
Normally, when a neuron is not transmitting information and a slight negative charge is present on the inside of the cell membrane, it is said to be _____.
Kenny has been diagnosed with Parkinson disease and has been prescribed medication to manage some of his symptoms. The medication elevates the levels of dopamine in his system. If the levels of dopamine in his system become excessive, Kenny might start to exhibit symptoms associated with __
Dominic is a marathon runner. He admits that whenever he runs, he feels euphoric. He cannot begin his day without running for an hour. In the context of neurotransmitters, which of the following is most likely responsible for his feelings of pleasure from running?
The release of endorphins
Sasha, a researcher, is working on a project on the human brain. Part of her research requires her to place electrodes on the scalps of her subjects to study their brain-wave activity. In this scenario, Sasha is most likely using
an electroencephalograph (EEG)
Judith has been asked to visit a well-known neurologist in her town, who will examine the levels of glucose in Judith's brain. Which of the following techniques will the neurologist most likely use to conduct the examination?
Positron-emission tomography (PET scan)
Meredith suspects that her mother is suffering from dementia. However, Joy, the psychiatrist, asks her to visit the neurologist to get an X ray of her mother's brain to confirm this diagnosis. Which of the following brain imaging techniques will the neurologist most likely use to get the X ray?
Computerized axial tomography (CAT scan)
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) is a technique that:
constructs images of a person's tissues and biochemical activities.
Which of the following principles underlies the technique of functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI)?
It rests on the principle that mental activity is associated with changes in the oxygenated blood levels in the brain.
Michael, a researcher in the field of neuroscience, has a theory about a specific area of the brain causing difficulties in face recognition. To draw a solid causal inference, he intends to test his hypothesis on dogs by disrupting regions of their brains and examining the effects of this disruption on the dogs' face-recognition capacity. Which of the following techniques should be used by Michael to achieve his purpose?
NOT**Functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI
Damien has been unable to sleep for the past few weeks. He wakes up in the middle of the night and cannot go back to sleep. On certain occasions, he cannot fall asleep at all and at other times, he is unable to wake up from sleep. In the context of the organization of the brain, Damien's problem with sleep and arousal is most likely caused by the poor functioning of the _____.
After delivering its message, some of the neurotransmitter is used up in the production of energy, and some of it is reabsorbed by the axon that released it to await the next neural impulse. In the context of synaptic transmission, this reabsorption is called _____.
In the context of the organization of the brain, damage to the hippocampus impairs:
The set of glands that regulates the activities of certain organs in the body is called the _____ system.
In the context of specialized cell structure, the primary function of dendrites is to _____.
Zeus was injured in a mining accident and suffered severe brain damage. In time, his brain healed and he was back to working in the mines. The only change was in his personality. From being a highly aggressive and temperamental individual, he became mild-mannered and calm, almost to the extent of being placid. In this scenario, the region of the cerebral cortex that was most likely damaged in the accident was the _____ lobe.
David damaged a part of his brain in a ski accident. Once he was out of his coma, the doctors noticed that even though he could produce words in speech, he couldn't seem to understand the meanings of the words spoken by others. In this scenario, damage to which of the following areas of David's brain is most likely causing this symptom?
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