Terms in this set (172)
President that was inexperienced (but knowledgeable) in international affairs. Ironically, during his presidency, the foreign relations increasingly overshadowed other issues. He strongly supported a world governed by morality and idealism rather than selfish interests.
He took a neutral stance for the first 2 years of WWI, but then changed opinion and entered the war on the side of the Triple Entente, primarily due to economic reasons and the German U-boat campaign.
Wilson's idealistic conviction in which he would create a new world order governed by morality and idealism rather than selfish national interests.
William Jennings Bryan
Secretary of State for President Wilson who believed (along with Wilson) that America's destiny was to spread Christianity and democracy. He resigned after the sinking of the Lusitania
During 1913 and 1914, the pacifist Bryan negotiated some thirty of these treaties, under which participating nations pledged not to go to war over any disagreement for a period of twelve months pending mediation by an international arbitration panel. They were later proved to be little help to prevent war.
revolutionary armies occupied this country in the 1910s
, a progressive reformer and the leader of the rebellion in Mexico who was overthrown by his chief of staff, General Victoriano Huerta,
General Victoriano Huerta
Madero's chief of staff, overthrew him, assumed power in 1913, and had Madero murdered.
Wilson stationed US warships off of this Mexican city to halt shipments to Huerta's regime
Incident on April 9, 1914, several Americans were gathering supplies and strayed into a restricted area on Mexico land and were arrested; they were quickly released, but a naval officer demanded that Mexicans salute the American flag and Wilson backed him by sending 6000 marines and sailors to occupy Veracruz
the term for American soldiers occupying Veracruz as named by the Mexicans
Francisco Pancho Villa
While the leader of one of the competing factions in the Mexican civil war, he provoked the United States into intervening. He hoped attacking the United States would help him build a reputation as an opponent of the United States, which would increase his popularity and discredit Mexican President Carranza.
A discriminatory Mexican phrase used to describe Americans. Used by Pancho VIlla to try to rally up support for his side in the Mexican civil war.
where Villa's men went on a rampage in an attempt to trigger US intervention; at the incident, Wilson abandoned his watchful waiting policy and sent Pershing to capture Villa
Woodrow Wilson's policy of staying out of the Mexican conflict. He said that "The government is theirs. Their liberty, if they can get it, is theirs, and so far as my influence goes while I am president, nobody shall interfere with them." in description of this policy.
Those who did not support America going to war. Included prominent figures like William Jennings Bryan, and who were characterized by the phrase "Let us Avoid Unnecessary Risks [sic]".
John J Pershing
After Pancho Villa had conducted several raids into Texas and New Mexico, President Woodrow Wilson sent troops under the command of this general into Mexico to stop Villa. However, after a year of chasing Villa and not being able to catch him, they returned to the United States. During the First World War, Pershing commanded the first contingent of U.S. soldiers sent to Europe and advised the War Department to send additional American forces.
The Taft administration's policy of encouraging American bankers to aid debt-plagued governments in Haiti, Guatemala, Honduras, and Nicaragua.
Wilson kept US marines here; Taft originally sent them to prevent a Civil War; they stayed until 1933
Wilson dispatched more marines here in 1915 after the country experience 2 chaotic rebellions; they stayed until 1934
US marines were brought here in 1916 by disorders and didn't leave until 1924
The region where Woodrow Wilson found it hard to practice his democratic ideals as he got involved in military coups and sending US troops to interfere.
Edith Bolling Galt
6 months after Ellen Wilson died, Wilson fell in love with this widow
President Wilson's first wife who died in 1914 before the outbreak of WWI
World War I (Great War)
this war broke out in Europe over the assassination of Archduke Franz Ferdinand of Austria, this was the first war in which "total war" was waged, and sucked the reluctant United States into it in 1917. It involved all world powers and had fronts on all inhabited continents.
country that wanted to suppress Serbia's expansionism, so when Archduke Ferdinand was assassinated by someone of Serbian descent, this country resolved to punish Serbia
a small independent kingdom that had long clamored for more of its ethnic land from Austria-Hungry.
part of the Central Powers, declared war on Russia when they refused to stop its army's mobilization and France 2 days later; invaded France
part of the Allied Powers; withdrew from the war after the Bolshevik Revolution reshaped its government to become communist
part of the Allied powers; invaded by Germany in 1914 and remained the main Western front of the war. Brought into the war when Germany declared war on it and invaded 2 days after Germany declared war on Russia. Germany declared war first due to the Franco-Russian alliance that would have eventually called this country into the war, and the old German strategy of quickly invading this country so that they would surrender fast.
Archduke Franz Ferdinand
The Austro-Hungarian heir assassinated by Gavrilo Princip, of Serbian descent, in Sarajevo in 1914; catalyst for WWI
Central Powers (Triple Alliance)
included Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy
Allied Powers (Triple Entente)
included France, Great Britain, and Russia
neutral country in which Germany's long term invasion plan through France involved going through. The German invasion of this country evoked an old and powerful alliance treaty between Belgium and Great Britain that forced Great Britain to immediately enter the war in defense.
entered war as a part of the Triple Entente in 1914 as a result of its treaty with Belgium, and the subsequent German invasion of Belgium. This nation contributed the largest navy in the world to the Triple Entente.
country that declared war because it wanted German colonies in the Pacific
country that entered WWI on the side of the Triple Alliance in 1914
Allied with the Central Powers, though it initially stayed out of WWI and then struck a bargain in which it joined the Allied Powers in 1915
A new war concept that came out of Industrialization. It meant that that everyone was considered a combatant, including civilians.
What imperial countries relied on to sustain themselves. During total war, nations would try to starve opponents by restricting this via blockades and submarine warfare.
Premeditated devastation inflicted civilian buildings such as cultural monuments cathedrals, museums, and historic buildings to utterly defeat the enemy.
German forces overran this city, where they murdered 248 civilians and burned the city's ancient library (example of total war)
The brutal war on this front in Russia was intended to be a war of racial annihilation. Russia used the pretext of the war to expel 500,000 Jews and 743,000 Poles.
war of racial annihilation
Occurred on the Eastern Front when Russia used the pretext of the war to expel 500,000 Jews and 743,000 Poles.
Battle of Verdun
a battle in northeast France, which lasted from February to December 1916, had unprecedented massed firepower that ravaged the landscape, shattering villages and turning farmland and forests into cratered wasteland.
Charles de Gaulle
French Lieutenant who became France's prime minister
a new style of warfare that made WW I unique because it changed the way battles were fought by digging large ditches and making it a war of attrition
A new concept of war enabled by industrialization that developed from the early 1800s through the Atomic Age. New technologies, including automatic weaponry, forms of transportation like the railroad and airplane, and communication technologies such as the telegraph and telephone, enabled nations to equip large, mass-conscripted armies with chemical and automatic weapons to decimate opposing armies in a "total war."
war of attrition
A prolonged war in which nations fought until their manpower and resources were utterly exhausted.
came from long-distance artillery and caused 60 percent of the war's casualties
the desolate area between the Alliance's and Entente's trenches, stitched with barbed wire and sown with mines, where men were constantly bombarded by artillery and machine-gun fire.
attack in Belgium where the British lost thirteen thousand men in only three hours of fighting and gained only one hundred yards of meaningless acreage.
a magazine that said "Our isolated position and freedom from entangling alliances," and "we are in no peril of being drawn into the European quarrel."
More than a third of the nation's citizens were first- or second- generation immigrants who retained strong ties to their native country.
Walter Hines Page
the ambassador to London who saw in German militarism a potential danger to the United States.
Wilson's closest adviser who saw in German militarism a potential danger to the United States.
These were necessary to the parties at war, especially the Allies, to facilitate the purchase of much needed American supplies. While declared to be inconsistent with the ideas of neutrality by Bryan, Woodrow Wilson quietly removed all restrictions to get these, which allowed war profiteers and war industries to flourish.
freedom of the seas
the recognition of neutral nations to continue oceangoing commerce in time of war
a term used by Williams Jennings Bryan referring to warring nations
In November 1914 the British declared this to be a war zone, sowed it with mines, and ordered neutral ships to submit to searches. In March 1915, they announced that they would seize ships carrying goods to Germany.
So that they would not lose their huge advantage of having the world's most powerful navy, the United Kingdom declared this in November 1914, despite American protests. They announced that they would seize ships carrying goods to Germany and effectively bottled up the entire German fleet.
A military submarine operated by the German government in the First World War, used to attack enemy merchant ships in war zone waters. The sinking of the ocean liner Lusitania by a German submarine caused a public outcry in America, which contributed to the demands to expand the United States' military.
ocean liner sunk by a German submarine in the Irish Sea
sinking of the Lusitania
outraged Americans, Wilson responded by urging patience, which brought criticism; led to Bryan's resignation and a secret German order to U-Boat captains to avoid sinking passenger vessels
became the Secretary of State after the sinking of the Lusitania, signed the Lusitania note with glee after his predecessor Bryan resigned over it.
Repeated American demands for Germany to abandon submarine warfare and to pay reparations for the sinking of the Lusitania, signed by Robert Lansing.
two American families were lost in the sinking of this New York-bound British liner and Germany paid a cash penalty to the families of the deceased and offered a public assurance that they would not sink anymore ships without warning
a public assurance from Germany delivered on September 1, 1915: "Liners will not be sunk by our submarines without warning and without safety of the lives of noncombatants, provided that the liners do not try to escape or offer resistance."
French steamer torpedoed by a U Boat and injured 2 Americans, led to a more concrete pledge about not torpedoing merchant or passenger ships
a pledge that was far stronger than the earlier German promise after the Arabic sinking the year before, implied the virtual abandonment of submarine warfare.
National Security League
organized by champions of preparedness in 1914 after the sinking of the Lusitania called for a stronger army and navy
National Defense Act of 1916
This act supported by Wilson expanded the regular federal army from 90,000 to 175,000 and permitted gradual enlargement to 223,000, it also increased the National Guard to 440,000. It was opposed by pacifists like Jane Addams, Carrie Chapman Catt, and William Jennings Bryan
Revenue Act of 1916
Opponents of military expansion wrote into this act changes that doubled the basic income tax rate from 1 to 2 percent, lifted the surtax to a maximum of 13 percent (for a total of 15 percent) on income over $2 million, added an estate tax, levied a 12.5 percent tax on munitions makers, and added a new tax on excess corporate profits; a victory for progressives. It was primarily created because pacifists insisted that the financial burden should rest upon the wealthy people that held responsible for promoting the military expansion and profiting from trade with the Allies.
hoped to run for president in 1916, but Hughes was chosen over him. At this point he was Blind and immobile, and of his three sons who fought in the war, one was killed and another maimed.
Charles Evans Hughes
Republican candidate in the 1916 election; a Supreme court justice with a background as a governor in NY
election of 1916
In this election, main concern of voters was whether or not the United States would become involved in World War I. Supreme Court Justice Charles E. Hughes and President Woodrow Wilson ran against each other. Wilson won by an extremely shallow margin, running the campaign slogan "He Kept Us Out Of War"
A dozen of these in Congress filibustered the measure of arming US merchant ships until the legislative session was over
forgotten law of 1792
the State Department used this to justify the arming of merchant ships regardless of congressional inaction.
British intercepted a message from this German foreign minister to the Mexican government that brought great controversy
An intercepted note from Germany that urged the Mexicans to invade the United States. In exchange for their making war on America, Germany guaranteed that Mexico would recover its lost territory; brought the US closer to war
led the Bolshevik party in their revolution, believed that communism would be an international movement
Under the leadership of Vladimir Lenin, this Marxist party led the November 1917 revolution against the newly formed provisional government in Russia. After seizing control, they negotiated a peace treaty with Germany, the Treaty of Brest-Litovsk, and ended their participation in World War I.
The political ideology based on Karl Marx that Vladimir Lenin transferred into an all-embracing ideology mercilessly imposed on an entire society, eliminating civil liberties, religious life, and the free press, and killing or imprisoning opposition leaders. It would become the most significant political movement of the 20th century.
this passed the Senate by a vote of 82 to 6 on April 4. And the House concurred, 373 to 50, and Wilson signed the measure on April 6, 1917, bringing the US into WWI
biggest causes for America's entrance into the war:
(not a term)
***PRIMARY CAUSE: THE ISSUE OF GERMANY'S UNRESTRICTED SUBMARINE WARFARE ON THE ATLANTIC
-the effects of British propaganda in the United States
-America's deep involvement in trade with the Allies
-an Allied defeat and German domination of Europe would threaten U.S. security
American Expeditionary Force
the first group of this group entered France in June, 1917 led by Pershing
Bonds that immigrants were encouraged to buy that allowed them to "do their duty for their new country " and help pay for the war.
Selective Service Act of 1917
made it so all men aged twenty-one to thirty could be drafted for military service.
After America's entry into World War I, the economy of the home front needed to be reorganized to provide the most efficient means of conducting the war. This organization was a part of this effort. Under the leadership of Herbert Hoover, the organization sought to increase agricultural production while reducing civilian consumption of foodstuffs.
head of the Food Administration
Army Appropriation Act of 1916
created a Council of National Defense, which in turn led to the creation of other wartime agencies.
Council of National Defense
created by the Army Appropriation Act of 1916 which in turn led to the creation of other wartime agencies
War Industries Board (WIB)
established in 1917, this became the most important of all the federal mobilization agencies. Bernard Baruch, a brilliant financier who exercised a virtual dictatorship over the economy, headed the organization
financier and head of the WIB who exercised virtual control over the economy; under him the purchasing bureaus of the United States and Allied governments submitted their needs to the board, which set priorities and issued production quotas to industries.
term for the movement of thousands of southern blacks (and whites) to the North during WWI, continued through the 1920s and changed the political and social dynamic of Northern cities
A Black newspaper in the North that urged black people to migrate north to work in the war factories during the Great Migration, exclaiming: "To die from the bite of frost is far more glorious than at the hands of a mob."
St. Louis, Illinois
In 1917 over forty African Americans and nine whites were killed during a racial riot over employment in a defense plant here
Chicago race riot
A racial conflict in the North, almost as deadly as in St. Louis, where whites angered by the influx of southern blacks into their communities seized upon an incident as an excuse to rampage through black neighborhoods, killing, burning, and looting while white policemen looked the other way.
Work in factories or manufacturing plants that allowed women to work in them as a result of all the men going off to fight.
Central Federated Union of New York
group that insisted that "the same patriotism which induced women to enter industry during the war should induce them to vacate their positions after the war."
Committee on Public Information
During the First World War, this committee formed by Wilson after war was declared produced war propaganda that conveyed the Allies' war aims to Americans as well as attempted to weaken the enemy's morale. Its executive was George Creel.
gospel of efficiency
progressive movement that suggested mobilizing public opinion as well.
He convinced President Woodrow Wilson that the best approach to influencing public opinion was through propaganda rather than censorship. As the executive head of the Committee on Public Information, he produced propaganda that conveyed the Allies' war aims.
Creel organized this to explain the Allies' war aims to the people and, above all, to the enemy, where it might help sap their morale. To generate support for the war effort, Creel gathered a remarkable group of journalists, photographers, artists, entertainers, and others useful to his purpose.
"The Beast of Berlin"
the Committee of Public information created this propaganda film and others like it; gave viewers a propagandistic view of WWI
75,000 of these men organized to give short speeches on liberty bonds, the need to conserve food and fuel, and other timely topics
The Red Scare bolstered the campaign of this
Espionage and Sedition Acts
Under these acts, Congress suppressed criticism of government leaders and war policies.
Espionage Act of 1917
imposed penalties of up to $10,000 and twenty years in prison for anyone who gave aid to the enemy; who tried to incite insubordination, disloyalty, or refusal of duty in the armed services; or who sought to interfere with the war effort.
Sedition Act of 1918
extended the penalties of the Espionage Act to those who did or said anything to obstruct the government sale of war bonds or to advocate cutbacks in production, and—just in case something had been overlooked—for saying, writing, or printing anything "disloyal, profane, scurrilous, or abusive" about the American form of government, the Constitution, or the army and navy.
a Socialist congressman from Milwaukee, received a twenty-year sentence for editorials in the Milwaukee Leader that called the war a capitalist conspiracy.
Eugene V Debs
received 900,000 votes in the 1912 election; jailed for remarks because of the Espionage act
Schenck v United States (1919)
case that reaffirmed the conviction of a man for circulating anti-draft leaflets among members of the armed forces. In this case, Justice Oliver Wendell Holmes said, "That the government was allowed to suppress speech where there was "a clear and present danger."
Oliver Wendell Holmes
Supreme Court justice that said, "Free speech would not protect a man in falsely shouting fire in a theater, and causing a panic." The government was allowed to suppress speech where there was "a clear and present danger."
Abrams v United States (1919)
in this case, the Court upheld the conviction of a man who circulated pamphlets opposing American intervention in Russia to oust the Bolsheviks.
dissented from the majority view in the Abrams v US case
largest American action in the war occurred here, where American divisions joined British and French armies in a drive toward Sedan and its railroad, which supplied the entire German front.
in 1917, this revolution overthrew the infant Russian republic, and the Communist leaders dropped out of the war.
French premier who appealed to the Americans to accelerate their mobilization in the fear that Germany would quickly break through the Western Front after diverting its battle-hardened troops from the newly-surrendered Russian theatre in a rapid push into the Western Front.
Second Battle of the Marne
turning point in France, when Germans were pushed back into Belgium by the Allied Powers
US First Army
A wholly American army that attacked the Germans at St. Mihiel, southeast of Verdun.
A town in France where a huge battle took place, discharging 32 million artillery shells and causing 715 thousand causalities.
A town in German-occupied France whose railroads supplied the entire German front.
"America," wrote this German general, "thus became the decisive power in the war."
Created the ideas surrounding Communism, inspired Vladimir Lenin and believed that it would become an international movement.
White Russians (anti-Bolsheviks)
the rising armies of this anti-Bolshevik group organizing resistance to their power led to the treaty of Brest-Litovsk
Treaty of Brest-Litovsk
peace treaty with Germany and Russia that frightened Wilson and led him to send American forces to Russia's artic ports
Conference in Paris late in 1917 that failed to agree on a statement of war aims, Colonel House advised Wilson to formulate his own plans to restructure postwar Europe and remake the world in the American image.
a group of American experts that began drafting a peace plan in 1917, their advice led to Wilson's 14 points plan
President Woodrow Wilson's 1918 plan for peace after World War I:
-First five points: called for open diplomacy rather than secret treaties, freedom of seas, removal of
trade barriers, reduction of armaments, impartial adjustment of the victor's colonial claims based on
desires of the populations involved
-remaining points dealt with territorial claims; Central Powers were to evacuate occupied lands and to allow self-determination for various nationalities
-Point 13 called for the creation of an independent nation for the Poles, who were dominated by Germans and Russians on both sides
-Point 14 called for the creation of a "league" of nations to protect global peace
at the Versailles peace conference, however, he failed to incorporate all of the points into the treaty.
As a part of the Treaty of Versailles, Germany was required to confess its responsibility for the First World War and make payments to the victors for the entire expense of the war. These two requirements created a deep bitterness among Germans.
the German home front was being torn apart by a loss of morale in late 1918, culminating in a naval mutiny here
at 5AM of the 11th hour of this day, Armistice was signed.
Paris Peace Conference
by attending this 6 month long conference, Wilson was abandoning post-war America; dominated by the Big Four, who passed in tandem a weaker version of the 14 points and severe repercussions on Germany for "starting" the war.
controlled Paris peace conference; included the prime ministers of Britain, France, and Italy and the president of the United States.
David Lloyd George
British Prime minister who insisted on harsh provisions in the peace treaty to weaken Germany
prime minister of Italy, who focused his efforts on getting territories from defeated Austria.
League of Nations
Organization of nations to mediate disputes and avoid war established after the First World War as part of the Treaty of Versailles; President Woodrow Wilson's "Fourteen Points'' speech to Congress in 1918 proposed the formation of the league.
Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the United States
the Big Five (Britain, France, Italy, Japan, and the United States) and four other nations would make up this part of the League of Nations
the administrative staff, with headquarters in Geneva, Switzerland, would make up this group in the League of Nations
World Court ( Permanent Court of International Justice)
part of the league of nations that could "hear and determine any dispute of an international character."
Henry Cabot Lodge
He was the chairman of the Senate Foreign Relations Committee who favored limiting America's involvement in the League of Nations' covenant and sought to amend the Treaty of Versailles.
What the Rhineland region was designated as as a result of one of the clauses in the Treaty of Paris, allowed France to control it and for France to tap the Saar Valley coal mines for 15 years.
Saar Valley coal mines
France could exploit this rich German region for fifteen years, after which the region's residents would vote to determine their national allegiance.
principle whereby every ethnic group would be allowed to form its own nation.
gave newly independent Poland its much-needed outlet to the sea through German territory.
One part of the Austro-Hungarian Empire became this country, which included the German-speaking Sudetenland, an area favored with good natural defenses.
an area favored with good natural defenses that was included in Czechoslovakia
Part of Austria-Hungary united with Serbia to create this kingdom
war guilt clause
a clause in the treaty in which Germany confessed responsibility for the war and thus took responsibility for its entire expense; offended Germans and made for persistent bitterness that Adolf Hitler would later seize upon to launch his Nazi party movement.
The river that separated Germany and France, and which all German forces were forced to cross following Armistice.
a young German corporal, learned of the Versailles Treaty's provisions imposed upon Germany, he seethed with anger and vowed revenge.
Versailles treaty (Treaty of Versailles)
This treaty was created to solve problems made by World War I. Germany was forced to accept the treaty. It was composed of only four of the original points made by President Woodrow Wilson. The treaty punished Germany and did nothing to stop the threat of future wars. It maintained the pre-war power structure.
group in the Senate of fourteen Republicans and two Democrats who refused to support American membership in the League of Nations on any terms. They were mainly western and midwestern progressives who feared that such sweeping foreign commitments threatened domestic reforms.
men who insisted upon limiting Amer- ican participation in the League, Lodge was one of these
Republican senator of Indiana who told Wilson he had no choice in keeping the League of Nations
Unprecedentedly lethal influenza epidemic of 1918 that killed more than 22 million people worldwide.
strike in Seattle
after this event, public opinion began to turn against labor's demands. Seattle's mayor denounced the walkout of sixty thousand workers as evidence of Bolshevik influence. The strike lasted only five days, but public alarm over the affair damaged the cause of unions across the country.
American Federation of Labor
campaign to organize steelworkers suffered from charges of radicalism against its leader, William Z. Foster, who had joined the Socialists in 1900 and later emerged as a Communist.
William Z Foster
Leader of the American Federation of Labor who who had joined the Socialists in 1900 and later emerged as a Communist; his radicalism took away from everything the AFL had accomplished
Boston police strike
On September 9, 1919, most of Boston's police force went out on strike. Massachusetts governor Calvin Coolidge was furious. He mobilized the National Guard to keep order, and after four days the police strikers offered to return, but the commissioner refused to take them back.
Massachusetts governor whose response to the Boston Police Strike made him a national figure
James Weldon Johnson
NAACP field secretary who predicted that Harlem would become the "intellectual, cultural, and financial center for Negroes of the United States, and will exert a vital influence upon all Negro peoples." Also coined the term Red Summer
term for hysterial racism in the summer of 1919
A race riot that occurred in late July, in which 38 people were killed and 537 injured.
where African American tenant farmers tried to organize a union; according to offi- cial reports, 5 whites and 25 blacks died in the rioting, but the death toll may have actually included more than 100 blacks.
Formed by left-wing members of the Socialist party
Communist Labor Party
Formed by left-wing members of the Socialist Party, focused more on Labor than the Communist Party.
A. Mitchell Palmer
As the attorney general, he played an active role in government's response to the Red Scare. After several bombings across America, including one at his home, he and other Americans became convinced that there was a well-organized Communist terror campaign at work. The federal government launched a campaign of raids, deportations, and collecting files on radical individuals
First Red Scare
Fear among many Americans after the First World War of Communists in particular and non-citizens in general, a reaction to the Russian Revolution, mail bombs, strikes, and riots. It represented the largest violation of civil liberties in American history
a religious duty to advance democracy and Christianity around the world
J Edgar Hoover
Appointed by Attorney General Palmer to lead a new government division to collect files on radicals
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