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a large land mass that forms a distinct part of a continent; india forms the Indian___


a wind that shifts in direction at certain times of the year; dominate India's climate

winter monsoons

from october to may; from the northeast, blows dry air across country, shift in the middle of june

spring monsoons

blow from the southwest; carries moisture from the ocean in great rain clouds


fertile deposit of wind blown soil; huge amounts of yellow dusty yellowish silt ; blown by winds from the deserts to the west; deposited on HUag He River


dry grasslands that stretch north of the Caucasus; indo europeans migrated from there

Huang He

yellow river; major river system; river helped with argriculture and farming, but also destroyed homes and villages with floods; china's sorrow

xi river

south of yangtze valley in subtropicalrice growing lands of china; a major river system

Yangtze river

a major river system; 90% of farmable land lies between Huang He and this river

Indus River

formed a fertile plain with ganges river; ---- - ganges plain

Caucasus Mountains

mt between the black and caspian seas; was a block for the indo eurpeans

Himalayan Mountains

a natural barrier of china; to the southwest of china; moutains that blocked the subcontinent india from the world


political system in which nobles are granted use of land that belongs to kings, in exchange for their loyalty, military services to king and protection of people in their own estates

dynastic cycle

the pattern of rise, decline and replacement of dynasties


the movement of people from one place to another, due to some reason(s); indo europeans ____ all across the continent

oracle bones

animal bones/ tortoise shells that in which SHANGS consulted the gods; priest would scratch questions into them and apply a hot poker to it, which causes it to crack and then, he will interphret the cracks to "predict" the future

indo europeans

a group of seminomadic ppls who came from the steppes; pastoral ppl herded cattle, goats and sheep; tamed horses; rode into battle with light chariots; their language is the ancestor of many modern languages; MIGRATED all over continent with no known reason why


another indo european ppl, crossed over northwest mt passes into indus river valley; no archaelogical record except the VEDAS (look over notes and chapters for moree!!!)


the sacred literature of the Aryans; left a fairly reliable picture of Aryan life; 4 collections of prayers, magical spells and instructions for performing rituals


priest; highest class in the caste system


a social system of Aryans in india that divides ppl in 4 classes; priest, warriors, peasants or traders and laborers or craftsmen and the untouchables(outside of system)


one of the great epics of india, reflects the struggles of that took place in india as the aryans moved relentlessly south; a story of war between 2 setd of cousins; longest single poem in the world


rebirth; a hindu belief that an individual soul is reborn again and again util moksha is acchieved


a soul's good or bad deeds; follows from one reincarmation to another; influences specific life circumstances such as status in caste system, one's health, ones weath etc


supreme god; creates mts; creates/ destroys universe in a never ending cycle; each thing has a point of it in them; hindus goal is to unite themselves with him

Brahma, Vishnu, Shiva

gods: the creator, the protector and the destroyer - never ending cycle




a perfect state of understanding of all things

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