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58 terms

Microbiology Test 3

Bibis
STUDY
PLAY
Prions
- Proteinaceous Infectious particle
- Inherited and transmissible by ingestion, transplant, and surgical instruments

- Spongiform encephalopathies: Sheep scrapie, Creutzfeldt-Jakob disease, Gerstmann-Sträussler-Scheinker syndrome, fatal familial insomnia, mad cow disease
Prions cont...
- Prions cause a conformational change of native proteins into an abnormally structured form
- Meaning they cause normally proteins to change shape
- And now these abnormal proteins also act as prions
More Prions
-This change in the conformation of the proteins can have two effects
- Loss of function of the native protein
- Gain in toxicity of the abnormal conformation

- In addition, misfolded forms of proteins have a higher likelihood to aggregate
Terminology of microbial control
- Sepsis refers to microbial contamination
- Asepsis is the absence of significant contamination
- Aseptic surgery techniques prevent microbial contamination of wounds
More Terminology of microbial control
- Sterilization: Removing all microbial life
- Commercial sterilization: Killing C. botulinum endospores
- Disinfection: Removing pathogens
- Antisepsis: Removing pathogens from living tissue
Even more Terminology of microbial control
- Degerming: Removing microbes from a limited area
- Sanitization: Lowering microbial counts on eating utensils
- Biocide/germicide: Kills microbes
- Bacteriostasis: Inhibiting, not killing, microbes
Heat on microbes
- Heat appears to kill microorganisms by denaturing their enzymes
- As a result, altering their structure
Moist heat sterilization
- Moist heat denatures proteins
- Autoclave: Steam under pressure
- 121 °C and 15 psi
Pasteurization
- Reduces spoilage organisms and pathogens
- Thermoduric organisms survive
Filtration
Membrane filtration removes microbes >0.22 µm
Radiation
- Ionizing radiation (X rays, gamma rays, electron beams)
- Ionizes water to release OH•
- Damages DNA
- Nonionizing radiation (UV, 260 nm)
- Damages DNA
- Microwaves kill by heat; not especially antimicrobial
Types of Disinfectants
Phenols & Phenolics (carbolic acid)
Disrupt plasma membranes
Halogens
Iodine
Tinctures: In aqueous alcohol
Iodophors: In organic molecules
Alter protein synthesis and membranes
Alcohol
Ethanol, isopropanol
Denature proteins, dissolve lipids
Require water
Heavy Metals
Denature Proteins
History of chemotherapy
Alexander Fleming: Penicillum notatum
Antimicrobial Drugs
- Chemotherapy: The use of drugs to treat a disease
- Antimicrobial drugs: Interfere with the growth of microbes within a host
- Antibiotic: A substance produced by a microbe that, in small amounts, inhibits another microbe
- Selective toxicity: A drug that kills harmful microbes without damaging the host
Spectrum of Antimicrobial
Broad spectrum
Narrow spectrum
Superinfection
The action of antimicrobial
Bactericidal
Kill microbes directly
Bacteriostatic
Prevent microbes from growing
Inhibitors of Cell Wall Synthesis
- Penicillin
- Prevents cross-linking of peptidoglycan
The Structure of Penicillins
Have Beta-Lactam Ring
Inhibitors of cell wall synthesis
- Antimycobacterial antibiotics
Isoniazid (INH)
- Inhibits mycolic acid synthesis
Ethambutol
- Inhibits incorporation of mycolic acid
competitive inhibitors
Sulfonamides (sulfa drugs)
Inhibit folic acid synthesis
Broad spectrum
Antiviral drugs
- Protease inhibitors
Indinavir: HIV
- Integrase inhibitors
HIV
- Inhibit attachment
Zanamivir: Influenza
Block CCR5: HIV
- Inhibit uncoating
Amantadine: Influenza
Concept of Immunity
Susceptibility: Lack of resistance to a disease
Immunity: Ability to ward off disease
Innate immunity: Defenses against any pathogen
Adaptive immunity: Immunity, resistance to a specific pathogen
Innate Immune system
How does the innate immune system recognize foreign materials such as bacteria?
Host Toll-like receptors (TLRs) attach to
Pathogen-associated molecular patterns (PAMPs)
The normal microbiota
- Normal Flora
- These microbes are typically take permanent residence of our body
Colonize
- Typically do not cause disease
Opportunistic pathogens
Formed elements in the blood
Blood consists of two parts
Plasma - Fluid component
Formed Elements - Cellular component
Leukocytes WBC
Leukocytes
- Granulocytes-
Contain large granules
- Agranulocytes
Granulocytes
Neutrophils - commonly known as polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs)
- Highly phagocytic and motile
Agranuloctyes
Monocytes
Mature monocytes turn into macrophages
Action of Phagocytic cell
- Fixed macrophages Do not leave the tissue once they enter it
- Free (wandering) macrophages - Roam tissues and gather at sits of infection or inflammation
Action of phagocytic cells
When an infection occurs, the innate immune system is activated
Phagocytic cells such as neutrophils and monocytes migrate to the infected area
Migration into the infected tissue stimulates the maturation of monocytes into macrophages
Mechanism of Phagocytosis
Chemotaxis
Adherence
Ingestion
Digestion
More mechanism of phagocytosis
The phagosome detaches from the plasma membrane and enters the cytoplasm
Combines with a lysosome which contains digestive enzymes, forming the phagolysosome
Inflammation
Characteristics of inflammation
Redness
Swelling (edema)
Pain
Heat
Loss of Function (in extreme cases)
The complement system
Proteins of the complement system destroy microbes by:
Cytolysis
Inflammation
Phagocytosis
- Inactive until they are split into fragments (products)
Dual nature of adaptive
Humoral immunity
- B cells mature in the bone marrow
Due to antibodies
Dual nature of adaptive cont...
Cellular immunity
Due to T cells
T cells mature in the thymus
The nature of antigens
Antigens are compounds that provoke a highly specific immune response
Most antigens are either proteins or large polysaccharides
Often components of invading microbes
Capsules, Cell wall
Flagella, Fimbriae
Toxins
Viral coat
- All antigens are not components of microbes
The nature of antigens cont...
- Antibodies recognize and interact with specific regions on antigens called epitopes
- The size, shape, and chemical structure of the antibodies binding site dictates the epitope an antibody recognizes
- Hapten: Antigen is combined with carrier molecules
The nature of antibodies
Antibodies
Globular protein
Soluble proteins having a nearly spherical structures to varying degree of elliptical structure
Referred to as immunoglobulin (Ig)
Made as a response to an antigen, which can then bind to that same antigen
The nature of antibodies cont...
Antibody monomers are composed of 4 proteins
2 heavy chains
2 light chains
Each antibody has at least two identical sites that bind to epitopes
Antigen Binding Site
The nature of antibodies cont....still
There are 2 regions of an antibody
The variable(V) region
The constant(C) region
The stem of the antibody is known as the Fc region
The nature of antibodies cont....even still
There are 5 classes of Igs
IgG, IgM, IgA, IgD, and IgE
B cells and humoral immunity
B Cells
Produce antibodies when activated
When exposed to free or extracellular antigens
Each B cell carries immunoglobulins on its cell surface
Upon being triggered by an antigen
The B cell divides (clonal expansion), and the daughter cells synthesize and secrete antibodies
Two types of daughter cells
Plasma cells - produce antibodies
Memory cells - Long lived cells, responsible for an enhanced secondary response
B cells and humoral immunity cont...
- B cells activation typically require assistance of a T helper cell (TH) - T-dependent antigen
- The antigen is enzymatically processed by the B cell into fragments which are combined with the major histocompatibility complex (MHC)
- Antigens that stimulate B cells without T cells are called T-independent antigens
Results of Ag-Ab binding
Agglutination
Ab's cause antigens to clump together or aggregate
- Opsonization (Greek, to cater or prepare food)
Antigen is coated with Ab's which enhances its ingestion and lysis by phagocytic cells
Results of Ag-Ab binding cont...
Neutralization
IgG Ab's inactive a microbe by blocking their attachment sites to host cells
Neutralize toxins in a similar way
- Activation of Complement System
IgG or IgM triggers complement activation by the classical pathway
Results of Ag-Ab binding cont...
Antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity
Resembles opsonization
Except the target cell remains outside of the immune cell
T cells and cellular immunity
Clusters of Differentiation (CD)
CD4+ and CD8+
TH cells are classified as CD4+
Because they bind to MHC class II molecules on B cells and Antigen Presenting Cells
TC cells are classified as CD8+ cells
Which bind to MHC class I molecules
types of adaptive immunity
Naturally acquired active immunity
Resulting from infection
Naturally acquired passive immunity
Transplacental or via colostrum
Artificially acquired active immunity
Injection of Ag (vaccination)
Artificially acquired passive immunity
Injection of Ab
Types of vaccination
Attenuated whole-agent vaccines
Uses live weakened microbes
Most closely mimic's an actual infection
Provides lifelong immunity without booster
95% effectiveness due to viral replication
Examples
MMR - Measles, Mumps, and Rubella
Polio vaccine
Types of vax
Inactivated whole-agent vaccines
Uses microbes that have been killed
By chemicals such as formalin or phenol
Examples
Pneumococcal pneumonia
Cholera
Types of vax
Toxoids
Inactivated toxins
Example
Tetanus toxoid
Diphtheria toxoid
Types of vax
Subunit vaccines
Fragment of a microbe that can best stimulate an immune response
Includes recombinant vaccines
Inherently safer because they cannot reproduce in the recipient
And also cause fewer adverse effects
Types of vax
Conjugated Vaccines
Based on capsular polysaccharides
Often are combined with proteins such as diptheria toxoid to improve response
Examples
Haemophilus influenzae type B
Types of vax
Nucleic Acid (DNA) Vaccines
DNA is injected into muscle, resulting in the production of the encoded protein antigen
Stimulates both the humoral and cellular immunity
Can be delivered by a needles injection device called the "gene gun"